MEGILAH 21 - Dedicated by Alex and Helen Gross of Rechavya, Jerusalem, lovers of Torah and builders of a home molded by dedication to Torah study. May the Zechus of the Torah always provide for and protect their entire family!


(a)(Mishnah): The whole night is Kosher for reaping the Omer.

(b)It was taught that reaping the Omer and Sefiras ha'Omer are at night. The Omer is offered during the day.

(c)We learn about Haktarah of Chelev and limbs from "The entire night until the morning."

(d)(Mishnah): The rule is, a daytime Mitzvah is Kosher the entire day.

(e)This comes to include arranging spoons (of frankincense that accompany Lechem ha'Panim) on the Shulchan and removing them. This is like R. Yosi:

1.(Beraisa - R. Yosi): Even if the old Lechem ha'Panim was removed in the morning and the new Lechem was not arranged until close to evening, it is not a problem.

2.Question: We require "V'Nosata Al ha'Shulchan Lechem Panim Lefanai Tamid"!

3.Answer: This forbids leaving the Shulchan without bread overnight.

(f)(Mishnah): Every nighttime Mitzvah is Kosher the entire night.

(g)This comes to include eating Korban Pesach. It is unlike R. Elazar ben Azaryah:

1.(Beraisa -R. Elazar ben Azaryah): A Gezeirah Shavah "ba'Laylah ha'Zeh-ba'Laylah ha'Zeh" to Makos Bechoros teaches that Pesach may be eaten only until midnight.



(a)(Mishnah): One may stand or sit while reading the Megilah.

(b)One is Yotzei whether one or two read it.

(c)One needs to bless on it only where that is the custom.

(d)On Monday, Thursday, and Shabbos afternoon, exactly three read from the Torah. There is no Haftorah;

(e)On Rosh Chodesh and Chol ha'Moed exactly four read; there is no Haftorah.

1.The ones who read first and last bless before and after reading, respectively.

(f)This is the general rule. Any day with Musaf, and it is not Yom Tov, four read;

(g)On Yom Tov five read; others may be added. There is a Haftorah;

(h)On Yom Kipur at least six read, and a Haftorah;

(i)On Shabbos at least seven read, and a Haftorah.

1.The ones who read first and last bless before and after reading, respectively.

(j)(Gemara - Beraisa): (One may read the Megilah standing or sitting -) this does not apply to Torah (we must stand while reading it b'Tzibur)!

(k)(R. Avahu): We learn from "Stand here with me". Had the Torah not written this, it would be forbidden to say this. It was as if also Hash-m stood!

(l)This also teaches that the Rebbi should not sit on a bed while teaching Talmidim sitting on the ground (rather, they should be equal).

(m)(Beraisa): From the days of Moshe until R. Gamliel, people stood while learning Torah. After R. Gamliel died, people became weak, and people learned while sitting. (Yehoshua used to arrange the benches where Moshe taught (Bamidbar Rabah 21:14). Perhaps we can explain that people sat while reviewing, or when learning harsh matters, like Rav or Rava below);

1.(Mishnah): The honor of Torah ceased when R. Gamliel died.

(n)Contradiction: It says, "Va'Eshev (I sat) on the mountain", and it says, "I stood on the mountain"!

(o)Resolution #1 (Rav): Moshe learned while standing, and reviewed his learning while sitting.

(p)Resolution #2 (R. Chanina): Moshe neither sat nor stood. Rather, he was bent over.

(q)Resolution #3 (R. Yochanan): "Va'Eshev" does not mean 'I sat', rather, 'I delayed'.

(r)Resolution #4 (Rava): He learned gentle matters while standing, and harsh matters while sitting.



(a)(Beraisa): One person reads the Torah, and one translates. Two may not (simultaneously) translate (or read, for they will not be heard);

1.One person reads from the Nevi'im, and two may translate. (We are not so concerned that it be heard, since Nevi'im do not teach Halachos).

(b)Ten people may read (or translate - Rashi deletes this from the text) Hallel or the Megilah at the same time.

1.Question: Why are these different?

2.Answer: Since they are dear to people, they concentrate and can hear.

(c)(Mishnah): Where the custom is to bless, one blesses.

(d)(Abaye): This refers to the Berachah after reading; before, it is a Mitzvah to bless;

1.(Rav Yehudah): One blesses Over (before) performing any Mitzvah.

2.Question: How do we know that 'Over' means before?

3.Answer #1 (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): "Va'Yaratz Achima'atz va'Ya'avor Es ha'Kushi".

4.Answer #2 (Abaye): "V'Hu Avar Lifneihem".

5.Answer #3: "Va'Ya'avor Malkam Lifneihem va'Shem b'Rosham".

(e)Question: What Berachos are made?

(f)Answer: Rav Sheshes blessed 'Mem-Nun-Ches' (Al Mikra Megilah, she'Asah Nisim and Shehe'Cheyanu) before reading.

(g)After reading, we bless 'the One who wages our conflict, judges our case, takes our vengeance, .... and repays all our enemies. Baruch Atah Hash-m, who pays up Yisrael from all their enemies.'

(h)(Rava): We end 'ha'Kel ha'Moshi'a.'

(i)(Rav Papa): We do not favor one opinion over the other; rather, we say both.

(j)(Mishnah): On Monday, Thursday and Shabbos afternoon three people read.

(k)Question: To what do these three correspond?

(l)Answer #1 (Rava): They correspond to Kohanim, Leviyim and Yisraelim.

(m)Question: Rav Simi taught that we do not read less than 10 verses. To what do they correspond?

(n)Answer #1 (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): They correspond to 10 Batlanim (people that do not work and are always in the Beis ha'Keneses).

(o)Answer #2 (Rav Yosef): They correspond to Aseres ha'Dibros.

(p)Answer #3 (R. Levi): They correspond to the 10 Hilulim (praises) in Psalms.

(q)Answer #4 (R. Yochanan): They correspond to the 10 declarations of creation.

1.Question: It says "Va'Yomer Hash-m" only nine times!

2.Answer: "Bereishis" is also a declaration.

(r)(Rava): Whichever of the three people reads four verses is praised (more than the others who read three each).

1.We find a preference for the first regarding the three boxes of Shekalim of Terumas ha'Lishkah. They are labeled so we will know which is first, for the Mitzvah is to buy Korbanos Tzibur from the first box.

2.We find a preference for the middle regarding the branches of the Menorah:

i.(Beraisa): "El Mul Penei ha'Menorah Ya'iru Shiv'as ha'Neros" teaches that the six lamps of the branches are tilted towards the Ner Ma'aravi (the middle lamp), and the Ner Ma'aravi is tilted towards the Shechinah (in the west).

ii.(R. Yochanan): This shows that the middle is preferable.

3.There is a preference for the last because we ascend in Kedushah, and do not descend.

4.A case occurred in which the first person read four verses, and Rav Papa praised him.

(s)(Mishnah): We may not detract nor increase from the number of people that read.

(t)(Beraisa): The first person blesses before reading; the last person blesses after reading.

(u)Nowadays everyone blesses before and after Keri'as ha'Torah. We are afraid lest a person enter (or leave) in the middle, and he will think that we do not bless before (or after).


(a)(Mishnah): On Rosh Chodesh and Chol ha'Moed there are four Olim (people called to read).

(b)Question (Ula bar Rav): How do we split the Kri'ah for Rosh Chodesh among the four?

1.The first eight verses are a Parshah (a segment of the Torah delineated by spaces. In printed Chumashim a Samech or Pei denotes the end of a Parshah.)

2.The first two Olim cannot read three verses each, for this would leave two verses in the Parshah, and we do not do this!

(c)Answer #1: Each will read four.

(d)Rejection: If so, how will the last two Olim read the remaining seven verses, which consist of a Parshah of two verses and a Parshah of five?

1.The first (of the last two Olim) cannot read the Parshah of two and one verse from the next Parshah, for we do not begin less than three verses of a Parshah!

2.If he will read the Parshah of two and three from the next Parshah, only two will remain for the last person!