1)WHEN PRIVATE BAMOS ARE ALLOWED
(a)(Gemara - R. Yitzchak): I heard that we may offer Korbanos in Beis Chonyo (a place of Avodah in Mitzrayim) nowadays.
1.He holds that Beis Chonyo is not a house of idolatry. He also holds that the initial Kedushah of Yerushalayim was not permanent, so Bamos are permitted after the Churban.
2.He learns from "You have not yet come to the Menuchah (rest) and to the Nachalah (inheritance)". Menuchah and Nachalah refer to Shilo and Yerushalayim, respectively.
3.This equates Shilo and Yerushalayim. Just like Bamos were permitted after Shilo, they were permitted after Yerushalayim.
(b)Rabanan: Did you say that?
(c)R. Yitzchak: No.
(d)(Rava): I swear that he did say it, and I learned it from him! He retracted because of Rav Mari's question.
(e)Question #1 (Rav Mari - Mishnah): Bamos were permitted after Shilo, but not after Yerushalayim.
(f)Question #2 (Mishnah): Once the Mikdash was built in Yerushalayim, Bamos were prohibited and were never permitted again. This was the "Nachalah".
(g)Answer #1 (to both questions): Tana'im argue about whether or not Kedushas Yerushalayim still applies.
1.(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): I heard that when they were building the Mikdash, they made curtains for (the areas that will be enclosed by) the Heichal and the Azarah.
i.The Heichal walls were built outside its curtains; the Azarah walls were built inside its curtains.
2.R. Yehoshua: I heard that we may offer Korbanos even without a Temple, and eat Kodshei Kodoshim even without curtains, and eat Kodshim Kalim and Maaser Sheni, even though there is no wall (around Yerushalayim), because Kedushas Yerushalayim was permanent.
i.Inference: R. Eliezer holds that (curtains were needed because) the Kedushah ceased!
(h)Objection (Ravina): Perhaps both hold that the Kedushah was permanent. Each Tana said what he heard.
1.Question: If so, how does R. Eliezer explain why there were curtains?
2.Answer: They were merely for Tzni'us (places of Kedushah should not be so exposed).
(i)Answer #2: The following Tana'im argue about whether or not the Kedushah ended. (A Mishnah (Erchin 32a) lists walled cities - old Ketzarah of Tzipori... )
1.(Beraisa - R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi): Chachamim listed cities that the returning exiles (from Bavel) were Mekadesh;
2.The first Kedushah ceased when the Kedushah of Eretz Yisrael ceased (after the first Churban).
3.This shows that R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi holds that the first Kedushah ceased.
(j)Contradiction (Beraisa - R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi): The cities listed are not the only walled cities. Moshe conquered "Shishim Ir... Mamleches Og... Betzuros Chomah!" The Mishnah lists only the cities that the returning exiles found and were Mekadesh.
1.Interjection: The Seifa (of this Beraisa, brought below) says that they did not need to be Mekadesh them!
2.Correction: Rather, we list cities known to have had a wall;
i.If there is a tradition about another city that it had a wall when Yehoshua entered Eretz Yisrael, the Mitzvos of walled cities (one who sells a house has a year to redeem it, a Metzora cannot stay there) also applies to it, because the first Kedushah was permanent.
3.This contradicts what R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi said in the above Beraisa!
(k)Answer #1: Tana'im argue about his opinion.
(l)Answer #2: The Tana of the Tosefta is really R. Eliezer bar Yosi:
1.(Beraisa - R. Eliezer bar Yosi): "Asher Lo Chomah" - ("Lo" is written with an Aleph, to include) even if it does not have a wall now, if it once had one!
2)VA'YEHI CONNOTES PAIN
(a)(R. Levi): We have a tradition from Anshei Keneses ha'Gedolah that 'va'Yehi' (and it was) always denotes pain"
1."Va'Yehi bi'Ymei Achashverosh" there was Haman.
2."Va'Yehi bi'Ymei Shefot ha'Shoftim" there was a famine.
3."Va'Yehi that man began to multiply" - "Hash-m saw that great is the evil of man."
4."Va'Yehi when they traveled from the east" - "Let us build a city."
5."Va'Yehi in the days of Amrafel they made war."
6."Va'Yehi Yehoshua biYricho" - "His sword drawn in his hand."
7."Va'Yehi Hash-m Im Yehoshua" - "Benei Yisrael transgressed.
8."Va'Yehi Ish me'Ramasayim" - Chanah was barren.
9."Va'Yehi when Shmuel grew old" - "His sons did not go in his ways."
10."Va'Yehi David was succeeding in all his ways and Hash-m was with him" - "Sha'ul put his eye on David".
11."Va'Yehi when the king sat in his house" - "But you will not build the Beis ha'Mikdash."
(b)Question: It says, "Va'Yehi on the eighth day (of Chanukas ha'Mishkan)"!
1.(Beraisa): That day there was a Simchah in front of Hash-m like the day Heaven and earth were created.
2.In both places it says "va'Yehi."
(c)Answer: Nadav and Avihu died.
(d)Question: "Va'Yehi in the 480th year (the Beis ha'Mikdash was completed)"!
(e)Question: "Va'Yehi when Yakov saw Rachel"!
(f)Question: "Va'Yehi evening and it was morning, one day"!
(g)Question: There is also the second day, the third day, and more!
(h)Answer (Rav Ashi): "Va'Yehi" is sometimes good, and sometimes painful. "Va'Yehi bi'Ymei is always pain. In five places it says "Va'Yehi bi'Ymei":
1."Va'Yehi bi'Ymei Achashverosh", "Va'Yehi bi'Ymei Shefot ha'Shoftim", "Va'Yehi bi'Ymei Amrafel", "Va'Yehi bi'Ymei Achaz", and "Va'Yehi bi'Ymei Yehoyakim."
3)TRADITIONS OF R. LEVI
(a)(R. Levi): We have a tradition that Amotz and Amatzyah are brothers.
(b)Question: What do we learn from this?
(c)Answer: This teaches like Rav Shmuel bar Nachmani, that a Kalah who is modest in her father-in-law's house merits that kings and Nevi'im will descend from her;
1.We learn from Tamar - "Yehudah saw her and thought that she was a harlot because she covered her face".
2.Question: Normally a harlot does not cover her face!
3.Answer: Rather, because she had covered her face in his house he didn't recognize her now, and she merited that kings and Nevi'im would descend from her.
4.Kings descended from her, i.e. (all kings of Beis) David;
5.Nevi'im descended from her, like R. Levi taught, that Amotz was the brother of Amatzyah (a king of Beis David), and it says "Chazon Yeshayahu ben Amotz". (Since Yeshayahu's lineage is traced to his father, this shows that also his father was a Navi - Megilah 15a.)
(d)R. Levi: We have a tradition that the Aron did not take up any space!
(e)(Support - Beraisa): There were 10 Amos from Moshe's Aron (until the wall) in each direction;
1.It says "V'Lifnei ha'Devir Esrim Amah." (Turei Even deletes the verse of the Cheruvim from the text, for it has no relevance to what we are proving.)
2.There was no space for the Aron! This shows that it stood miraculously.
4)PRELUDES TO MEGILAS ESTHER
(a)When R. Yonason would expound the Megilah, he would begin "And I will rise upon them ... and I will cut off from Bavel Shem v'Sheir v'Nin v'Neched";
1."Shem" is the writing, "Sheir" is the language, "Nin" is the kingship, and "Neched" (grandchild) is Vashti.
(b)Shmuel bar Nachmani would begin to expound with "In place of ha'Na'atzutz will rise b'Rosh; in place of Sarpad will rise Hadas";
1.'Na'atzutz' is Haman ha'Rasha, who made himself an idol;
i.Idolatry is called Na'atzutz - "In all the Na'atzutzim and in all the barren trees."
2.'Rosh' is Mordechai, who is called the first of the spices (used for Shemen ha'Mishchah) - "Kach Lecha Besamim Rosh Mar Deror... ";
i.The Targum of "Mar Deror" is Mari Dachi.
3."SaRPaD" is Vashti ha'Resha'ah, the granddaughter of Nevuchadnetzar ha'Rasha, who burned ReFiDas Beis Hash-m (the Beis ha'Mikdash) - "Refidaso Zahav".
4."Hadas" is Esther, who is called Hadasah - "And he raised Hadasah."
(c)"V'Hayah la'Shem l'Shem" - this is Keri'as ha'Megilah (Maharsha - Hash-m's name is not in the Megilah, but it is mentioned when we bless on reading the Megilah);
1."For an eternal sign that will not be cut off" - these are the days of Purim.
(d)R. Yehoshua ben Levi would begin to expound with "And it will be, like Hash-m rejoiced over you to do good to you, so He will rejoice over you to do evil to you."
(e)Question: Hash-m does not rejoice at the downfall of the wicked!
1.(R. Yochanan): "(Yehoshafat appointed singers, and) when they went out to war they would say 'Hodu la'Shem Ki l'Olam Chasdo'". 'Ki Tov' is omitted, because Hash-m does not rejoice at the downfall of the wicked.
2.(R. Yochanan) Question: What does it mean "V'Lo Karav Zeh El Zeh Kol ha'Laylah"?
3.Answer: The angels wanted to sing (this is like "V'Kara Zeh El Zeh"), but Hash-m said to them 'the works of My hands are drowning in the sea, and you sing?!'
(f)Answer (R. Elazar): Hash-m does not rejoice, but He makes others rejoice (to punish the wicked).
1.Support: (Regarding punishing) it says "Yasis" (He will make rejoice), not 'Yasos' (He will rejoice).
(g)R. Aba bar Kahana would begin with "L'Adam she'Tov Lefanav Nosan Chachmah v'Da'as v'Simchah" - this is Mordechai ha'Tzadik;
1."To the sinner He gave the desire to gather and store" - this is Haman.
2."To give (the stored wealth) to whom is good in front of Hash-m" - this is Mordechai and Esther, "And Esther put Mordechai over the house of Haman."
(h)Raba bar Ufron would begin with "And I put My throne in Ilam, and I destroyed from there a king and nobles" - "king" refers to Vashti, and "nobles" refers to Haman and his 10 sons.