POINT BY POINT OUTLINE OF THE DAF
prepared by Rabbi Pesach Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
1) LIMITATIONS ON PASEI BIRA'OS
(a) Question: Rav Yitzchak taught that Pasei Bira'os were permitted only for a well of flowing water. If it is for animals, we do not care if the water is collected or flowing! (Tosfos 18a DH Bor - if the only concern is lest the water run out, a public pit should be permitted!)
(b) Answer: [Even though it was enacted for the sake of animals,] we require [good] water appropriate for people.
(c) Above, we answered for Rav Yitzchak that Pasei Bira'os were permitted only for animals, but a person can climb down to drink, and climb out;
1. If the well is too wide (one cannot spread his limbs from one side to the other and climb down), it is permitted [to draw water] even for people.
(d) (Beraisa): On Shabbos, one may not fill [a Kli] with water and put it in front of his animal;
1. He may fill [a Kli] and pour it for his animal to drink by itself.
(e) Question (Rav Anan): If so, Pasei Bira'os do not help!
(f) Objection: Surely, they permit to draw water!
(g) Correction - Question: Rather, it does not help that there is room for Rosho v'Rubo of a cow!
(h) Answer (Abaye): The Beraisa discusses a feeding trough four wide and 10 tall in Reshus ha'Rabim, and one end enters between the Pasim... (In a normal case, if Rosho v'Rubo are inside he may hold the Kli.)
(i) Version #1 (R. Yirmeyah bar Aba citing Rav): (Shacks of watchmen near a city are considered part of the city regarding Techumim.) The law of shacks does not apply in Bavel. Pasei Bira'os do not apply in [the rest of] Chutz la'Aretz.
1. Shacks do not apply in Bavel, because floods are common. (The shacks are prone to be destroyed, so they are not significant);
2. Pasei Bira'os do not apply in Chutz la'Aretz, for [they permit only for Olei Regalim or people traveling to another Mitzvah, and] Yeshivos are scarce in Chutz la'Aretz.
(j) Shacks do apply in Chutz la'Aretz [except for Bavel], and Pasei Bira'os do apply in Bavel.
(k) Version #2 (R. Yirmeyah bar Aba citing Rav): Shacks and Pasei Bira'os do not apply in Bavel or Chutz la'Aretz;
1. Shacks do not apply in Bavel, due to floods. They do not apply in Chutz la'Aretz, [for they are not significant] due to thieves;
2. Pasei Bira'os do not apply in Bavel, for water is plentiful. They do not apply in Chutz la'Aretz, for Yeshivos are scarce.
(l) Rav Chisda (to the grandson on R. Yirmeyah bar Aba): I heard that you go on Shabbos from Barnish to the Beis ha'Keneses where Daniel prayed. This is three Parsa'os, more than one may leave the Techum;
1. You must rely on shacks. Your grandfather said in the name of Rav that shacks do not apply in Bavel!
(m) R. Yirmeyah's grandson showed him destroyed cities within 70 Amos and a fraction [of Barnish, and of each other. Remaining walls of houses extend the Techum like shacks in Eretz Yisrael.]
2) DIVREI TORAH AND DIVREI CHACHAMIM
(a) (Rav Chisda) Question: How do we explain "l'Chol Tichleh Ra'isi Ketz Rechavah Mitzvascha Me'od" (I found a limit for everything, except for Torah)?
(b) Answer: David, Iyov and Yechezkeil were all overwhelmed by the vastness of Torah. No one specified [the measure] until Zecharyah did:
1. David said the above verse [of Tehilim]. Iyov said "Aruchah me'Eretz Midah u' Rechavah Mini Yam". Yechezkeil said (Rashi - regarding the oral Torah) "va'Yifros Osah Lefanai v'Hi Chesuvah Panim v'Achor v'Chasuv Eleha Kinim ve'Hegeh va'Hi";
i. "Kinim" refers to punishments of Tzadikim in this world - "Kinah Hi v'Konenuha." (This verse discusses Resha'im. It teaches only that Kinim refers to punishments);
ii. "Ve'Hegeh" refers to the reward of Tzadikim in the future - "Alei Higayon b'Chinor";
iii. "Va'Hi" refers to punishments of Resha'im in the world to come - "Hovah Al Hovah Tavo."
2. Zecharyah gave a measure - "... Ani Ro'eh Megilah Afah Arkah Esrim ba'Amah v'Rachbah Eser ba'Amah." (This refers to Hash-m's Amah);
3. ("Afah: means folded.) When it is unfolded, it is 20 by 20 Amos;
4. It was written "Panim v'Achor" (on both sides) - if one would peel off the two sides of the parchment and join them to make a scroll written on one side, it would be 40 by 20 Amos (four times its apparent size. This corresponds to four levels of expounding Torah - simple meaning, Drashah, allusion, and deep secret - Maharsha.)
5. It says "Mi Modad b'Sha'alo Mayim v'Shamayim ba'Zeres Tiken." (The world corresponds to Hash-m's Zeres (half an Amah - see note 13 in Appendix), so twice the size of the world corresponds to His Amah.) This teaches that the Torah is [80 times as long and 40 times as wide, i.e.] 3,200 times the size of the world.
(c) (Rav Chisda) Question: How do we explain "V'Hinei Shnei Duda'ei Se'enim...; Ha'Dud Echad Te'enim Tovos Me'od... veha'Dud Echad Te'enim Ra'os Me'od..."?
(d) Answer: The good figs are absolute Tzadikim, and the bad figs are absolute Resha'im;
1. Suggestion: There is no hope for the Resha'im!
2. Rejection: "Ha'Duda'im Nasnu Rei'ach" - in the future, both of them will have a nice scent.
(e) (Rava) Question: How do we explain "ha'Duda'im Nosnu Rei'ach"?
(f) Answer: This refers to male youths of Yisrael who never sinned;
1. "V'Al Pesacheinu Kol Megadim" refers to Benos Yisrael who are Magid Pischeihem (tell when they became Nidah) to their husbands. Alternatively, they are OGDos Pischeihem. (They bind their [genital] openings, and do not have relations with anyone except for their husbands.)
2. "Chadoshim Gam Yeshanim Dodi Tzafanti Lach" -- Keneses Yisrael says to Hash-m ''I decreed many stringencies on myself, more than You did, and I fulfilled them.'
(g) A Talmid was reciting Agados in front of Rav Chisda. Rav Chisda asked him if heard anything about "Chadashim Gam Yeshanim."
(h) The Talmid: These refer to light Mitzvos and severe Mitzvos.
(i) Objection (Rav Chisda): The Torah was given all at once! (Why should some be called new, and some old?)
(j) (Rav Chisda): Rather, Chadashim refers to mid'Rabanan laws, and Yeshanim refers to Torah laws.
(k) (Rava) Question: What is the meaning of "v'Yoser me'Hemah Beni Hizaher Asos Seforim Harbeh"?
(l) Answer: One should be more careful about mid'Rabanan laws than mid'Oraisa;
1. Most mid'Oraisa Mitzvos are Mitzvos Aseh or Lavim [without Misah]. However, anyone who transgresses mid'Rabanan laws is Chayav Misah [b'Yedei Shamayim -- "u'Foretz Gader Yishchenu Nachash"]!
2. Question: If mid'Rabanan laws are proper, why weren't they written in the Torah?
3. Answer: "Asos Seforim Harbeh Ein Ketz." (It would be too long.)
(m) (Rav Papa brei d'Rav Acha): "V'Lahag Harbeh Yegi'as Basar" teaches that anyone who is MaL'iG (mocks) words of Chachamim is judged in boiling excrement [in Gehinom].
(n) Objection (Rava): "V'Lahag" is written with 'Hei'. It is unreasonable to expound from this (Tosfos R. Peretz - only) 'MaL'iG', which has an 'Ayin'!
1. Rather, it [also] teaches that anyone who is Hogeh (ponders) Divrei Torah finds Ta'am (reason in them, like meat has Ta'am (taste)).
(o) (Beraisa): A case occurred in which R. Akiva was imprisoned [for teaching Torah]. Every day R. Yehoshua ha'Garsi used to bring to him a [meager] ration of water. One day, the warden claimed that he brought more water. He charged that this was to dig a tunnel [to escape], so he spilled out half of it.
1. R. Akiva saw the half ration, and said 'I am old. (This was near the end of his life. He was almost 120.) My life depends on what you bring to me!' R. Yehoshua explained what happened.
2. R. Akiva: 'Give the water to me, to wash before eating.'
3. R. Yehoshua: There is not enough to drink. Will you use it to wash?!
4. R. Akiva: One who transgresses Divrei Chachamim is Chayav Misah. It is better that I die my 'own' death [from thirst] than to transgress their words!
5. R. Akiva did not eat until washing. When Chachamim heard about this, they said 'if he was so [steadfast to follow Divrei Chachamim] in his old age, all the more so in his youth [when he had more strength to bear afflictions]! If he was so in prison, all the more so outside of prison!' (Tosfos - soldiers are exempt from washing, and all the more so someone in danger is exempt. R. Akiva was stringent on himself.)
3) SHLOMO HELPED TO GUARD AND EXPLAIN THE TORAH
(a) (Rav Yehudah): When Shlomo decreed Netilas Yadayim and Eruvin [to distance people from Tum'ah and from transgressing Hotza'ah], a Bas Kol said "Beni Im Chacham Libecha Yismach Libi Gam Ani" and "Chacham Beni v'Samach Libi va'Ashivah Chorfi Davar."
(b) (Rava) Question: What do we learn from "Lecha Dodi Netzei ha'Sadeh..."?
(c) Answer: Keneses Yisrael says to Hash-m 'do not judge me like city dwellers, who transgress theft, Arayos and vain and false oaths;'
1. "Netzei ha'Sadeh" - I will show You Chachamim who engage in Torah amidst hardship;
2. We read "Nalinah ba'Kefarim" like 'Kofrim'. The ones to whom You bestowed great good denied You;
3. "Naskimah la'Keramim" refers to Batei Kenesiyos and Batei Medrash;
4. "Nir'eh Im Porchah ha'Gefen" are people who know written Torah;
5. "Pitach ha'Semadar" are people who know Mishnah;
6. "Henatzu ha'Rimonim" are people who know Gemara (analysis of Mishnayos. They can derive the Halachah, therefore the verse alludes to them like fully grown fruit, from which one may benefit);
7. "Sham Eten Es Dodai Lach" - I will show to You my honor and greatness, the praise of my sons and daughters [who never sinned, like we expounded above].
(d) (Rav Hamnuna) Question: What is the meaning of "va'Ydaber Sheloshes Alafim Moshal Va'Yhi Shiro Chamishah va'Alef"?
(e) Answer: Shlomo gave 3000 parables for every matter in Torah, and 1005 reasons for every mid'Rabanan law.
(f) (Rava) Question: What is the meaning of "v'Yoter Hayah Koheles Chacham Od Limed Da'as Es ha'Am"?
(g) Answer: He taught Simanim (ways to remember things), reasons and analogies.
(h) (Ula): "V'Izen v'Chiker Tiken Meshalim Harbe" -- before Shlomo, the Torah was like a basket without Oznayim (handles). Shlomo made handles for it.