BACKGROUND TO THE DAILY DAF
prepared by Kollel Iyun Hadaf of Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
[21a - 56 lines; 21b - 51 lines]
1) [line 1] מטפס ועולה מטפס ויורד METAPES V'OLEH, METAPES V'YORED - he climbs up and he climbs down (O.F. (charpir) [ranper] to climb)
2a) [line 16] בורגנין BURGANIN - temporary huts of the watchmen that are on guard outside of the cities
b) [line 16] אין בורגנין בבבל EIN BURGANIN B'VAVEL (IBURO SHEL IR)
(a) A person is only allowed to walk a distance of 2000 Amos, approximately 960 meters (3147 feet) or 1,152 meters (3774 feet), depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, from his city (or dwelling place if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov.
(b) If permanent or temporary dwellings are located within 70 2/3 Amos of the city, Iburo Shel Ir (the city's limits, or "bulge") extends until the last dwelling, and the 2000 Amos are measured from there. Rav Yirmeyah bar Aba in the name of Rav asserts that the Burganin (see above, entry 2a) of Bavel cannot be used to extend the city limits. Since flood waters are common in Bavel, these Burganin are often washed away, and cannot even be considered temporary dwellings.
3) [line 18] בידקי BIDKEI - floodwaters (that wash away the Burganin)
4) [line 19] מתיבתא MESIVTA - Yeshivos
5) [line 23] דשכיחי גנביSHECHICHI GANAVEI - thieves are common
6) [line 27] אמרי AMREI - people say
7) [line 27] אתיתו מברנש ASISU MI'BARNESH - that you come from Barnesh (in Bavel, probably the modern Khar-Birnus, near Helle) [to Bei Kenishta d'Daniel on Shabbos]
8) [line 31] מתוותא MASVASA - (destroyed) cities
9) [line 32] אמר רב חסדא דריש מרי בר מר AMAR RAV CHISDA, DARISH MARI BAR MAR - The Gemara cites this here because the previous Sugya mentioned a conversation that took place between Rav Chisda and Mari son of Rav Huna (son of Rebbi Yirmeyah bar Aba); therefore it continues to bring a citation of Rav Chisda quoting Mari bar Mar. (It appears that Mari bar Mar is Mari bar Rav Huna. Since Rav Chisda's Rebbi was also named "Huna," he did not want to call Mari's father by name and called him "bar Mar [the master]." -Dikdukei Sofrim #100)
10) [line 33] לכל תכלה ראיתי קץ..." " "L'CHOL TICHLAH RA'ISI KETZ..." - "I have seen an end for every purpose; but your commandment (the Torah) is exceedingly broad." (Tehilim 119:96) - Mari bar Mar taught that King David, Iyov, and Yechezkel all spoke about the vast infiniteness of the Torah, but they only referred to certain parts of the Torah. The prophecy of Zecharyah speaks of the entire Torah. (See MAHARSHA.)
11) [line 41] ויפרש אותה לפני..." " "VA'YIFROS OSAH LEFANAI..." - "And it (the hand) spread it (the scroll) out before me; and it had writing on the front and on the back. And in it was written lamentations and mourning and woe." (Yechezkel 2:10)
12) [line 47] הוה על הוה תבא"" "HOVAH AL HOVAH TAVO" - "Calamity shall follow upon calamity." (Yechezkel 7:26) - This verse proves that the word "Hi" is referring to the punishment of the wicked in the World to Come.
13) [line 50] מגילה עפה MEGILAH AFAH - a folded scroll
14) [line 53] וכי קלפת לה V'CHI KALFAS LAH - and if you would peel apart the front and the back of the parchment
15a) [line 54] מי מדד בשעלו מים..."" "MI MADAD B'SHA'ALO MAYIM..." - "Who has measured the waters in the hollow of his hand, and meted out heaven with the span, and comprehended the dust of the earth in a measure, and weighed the mountains in scales, and the hills in a balance?" (Yeshayah 40:12)
b*) [line 54] "ושמים בזרת תכן" "V'SHAMAYIM BA'ZERES TIKEN" - Although the beginning of the verse discusses the size of the heavens, rather than the earth, the end of the verse continues, "and He measured in thirds the earth of the land," that is, with the same Zeres that created the heavens. This implies that both heavens and earth were the size of a Zeres.
16) [last line] "[הראני ה'] והנה שני דודאי תאנים מועדים לפני היכל ה' [אחרי הגלות נבוכדראצר מלך בבל את יכניהו בן יהויקים מלך יהודה ואת שרי יהודה ואת החרש ואת המסגר מירושלם ויבאם בבל]. הדוד אחד תאנים טובות מאד כתאני הבכורות והדוד אחד תאנים רעות מאד אשר לא תאכלנה מרוע." "[HIR'ANI HASH-M] V'HINEI SHNEI DUDA'EI TE'EINIM MO'ADIM LIFNEI HEICHAL HASH-M [ACHAREI HAGLOS NEVUCHADNETZAR MELECH BAVEL ES YECHONYAHU BEN YEHOYAKIM V'ES SAREI YEHUDAH V'ES HE'CHARASH V'ES HA'MASGER MI'YERUSHALAYIM V'YEVI'EM BAVEL]. HA'DUD ECHAD TE'EINIM TOVOS ME'OD KI'TE'EINEI HA'BAKUROS, V'HA'DUD ECHAD TE'EINIM RA'OS ME'OD ASHER LO SE'ACHALNAH ME'RO'A."- "[HaSh-m showed me (a vision)] and behold two baskets of figs were prepared before HaSh-m's sanctuary [after Nevuchadnetzar, king of Bavel, had exiled Yechonyah the son of Yehoyakim, the princes of Yehudah, the artisans and the gate-keepers from Yerushalayim, and had brought them to Bavel]. The one basket [contained] very good figs, like figs that have ripened early; and one basket, very bad figs that were so bad as to be inedible." (Yirmeyahu 24:1-2) (TWO GROUPS OF EXILES)
(a) After Yirmeyahu described what he had seen, HaSh-m appeared to him a second time and explained to him the significance of the two baskets of figs.
(b) The first basket of figs symbolized the righteous Jews (described in the first verse, which Chazal interpret as the greatest Torah scholars in Yisrael). They were already in Galus and could look forward to a better future, as the Navi goes on to explain. HaSh-m promised them that He would return them to their land and re-establish them, and that they would be reunited with Him, because they were destined to do Teshuvah with all their hearts.
(c) The second basket, on the other hand, symbolized the Jews who remained in Eretz Yisrael and those who remained in Egypt, and who had yet to go into exile together with Tzidkiyahu. The Navi goes on to prophesy how they were destined to be handed over "to all the nations of the land for horror and for evil," to become a shame, a parable, a lesson, and a curse among the nations to which they will be exiled. Moreover, "He will send after them the sword, hunger, and pestilence until they will be destroyed from on the land which He promised to give to them and to their fathers."
17) [line 4] אבד סברם ובטל סיכוים AVAD SIVRAM U'VATEL SIKUYAM - their hope (of returning to HaSh-m) is gone and their prospect is frustrated
18) [line 7] הדודאים נתנו ריח" " "HA'DUDA'IM NASNU REI'ACH..." - "The mandrakes give a fragrance, and at our gates are all manner of choice fruits, new and old, which I have stored for you, my beloved." (Shir ha'Shirim 7:14)
19a) [line 9] שמגידות פתחיהן לבעליהן SHE'MAGIDOS PISCHEIHEN L'VA'ALEIHEN - they tell their husbands when they see Dam Nidah
b) [line 10] שאוגדות פתחיהן לבעליהן SHE'OGDOS PISCHEIHEN L'VA'ALEIHEN - they are faithful to their husbands (lit. they keep themselves tied up, closed [to others])
20) [line 12] הרבה גזירות גזרתי HARBEH GEZEIROS GAZARTI - That is, Yisrael made many decrees to enhance the observance of Arayos (which the verse is discussing, according to this Drash), such as Sheniyos l'Arayos. Since the Gemara mentions Sheniyos here, a Solomonic institution, it continues to dwell on the other Solomonic insitutions, such as Eruvin and Netilas Yadayim.
21) [line 18] "ויותר מהמה בני..." "V'YOSER ME'HEMAH BENI..." - "And furthermore, my son, be admonished: of making many books there is no end, and much study is a weariness of the flesh." (Koheles 12:12)
22) [line 23] המלעיג HA'MAL'IG - that ridicules
23) [line 24] בצואה רותחת TZO'AH ROSACHAS - boiling hot excrement
24) [line 25] ההוגה בהן HA'HOGEH VAHEN - that repeats them over and over
25) [line 27] מצאו שומר בית האסורין METZA'O SHOMER BEIS HA'ASURIN - the guard of the prison found him
26) [line 28] לחתור בית האסורין LACHTOR BEIS HA'ASURIN - to tunnel out of the prison
27) [line 38] "חרפי" "CHORFI" - "the one who shames me" (Mishlei 27:11)
28) [line 38] לכה דודי נצא השדה LECHAH DODI, NETZEI HA'SADEH..." - "Come, my beloved, let us go forth into the field; let us lodge in the villages." (Shir ha'Shirim 7:13)
29) [line 41] כיושבי כרכים K'YOSHVEI KERAKIM - like the inhabitants of large cities
30) [line 47] ויותר שהיה קהלת חכם..."" "V'YOSER SHE'HAYAH KOHELES CHACHAM..." - "And besides being wise, Koheles also taught the people knowledge; for he weighed, and sought out, and set in order many proverbs." (Koheles 12:9)
31) [line 48] דאגמריה בסימני טעמים D'AGMEREI B'SIMANEI TA'AMIM - he standardized the text of the Tanach and Mishnah and taught mnemonic devices in order to remember the exact amount of words and their order
32) [line 49] ואסברה במאי דדמי ליה V'ASBERAH B'MAI D'DAMI LEI - he explained it by demonstrating when to learn one subject from comparable matters
33) [line 50] לכפיפה KEFIFAH - a basket
34) [line 50] "קווצותיו תלתלים" "KEVUTZOSAV TALTALIM" - "... his locks are wavy, and black as a raven." (Shir ha'Shirim 5:11)
35) [last line] על כל קוץ וקוץ AL KOL KOTZ V'KOTZ - on every Tag (crownlet on the letters)