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POINT BY POINT OUTLINE OF THE DAF

Kollel Iyun Hadaf

prepared by Rabbi Pesach Feldman of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim

daf@dafyomi.co.il, www.dafyomi.co.il

Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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1) PREPARATIONS FOR PRAYER

(a) (R. Yochanan): To accept Ol Malchus Shamayim to the fullest extent, one should relieve himself, wash his hands, put on Tefilin, say Keri'as Shema and pray.

(b) (R. Chiya bar Aba): If one does the above, it is as if he built a Mizbe'ach and offered a Korban on it -- "Erchatz b'Nikayon Kapai va'Asovevah Es Mizbachacha."

(c) Rava: Don't you also consider it as if he immersed? It says "Erchatz b'Nikayon" (connoting, I will wash my whole body), not "Architz Kapai"!

(d) Ravina: A Chacham came from Eretz Yisrael, he says that one who does not have water should clean his hands in dirt, pebbles or chips of wood!

(e) Rava: That is correct -- it does not say "I will wash in water," rather, "b'Nikayon" -- in anything that cleanses!

1. Rav Chisda would curse one who delays praying (some explain - until after the allowed time) until he can wash his hands with water.

2. (Some delete from the text everything until the next Mishnah.)

3. [This refers only to delaying Keri'as Shema (which must be said within the first three hours of the day), but one should travel to wash with water before Tefilah;

4. Question: How far should one go to get water?

5. Answer: He should go up to a Parsah (four Mil);

i. This is only if he was traveling, and in the direction that he was traveling; for one who must backtrack (or go to the side, or one who was not travelling) he must go only until one Mil.]

2) MUST ONE PRAY AUDIBLY TO HIS OWN EARS?

(a) (Mishnah): If one said Keri'as Shema inaudibly (to his own ears), he was Yotzei;

(b) R. Yosi says, he was not Yotzei.

(c) R. Yosi says, if he did not articulate the letters properly, he was Yotzei;

(d) R. Yehudah says, he was not Yotzei.

(e) If one said it out of order, he was not Yotzei;

(f) If one erred, he should return to the place where he erred.

(g) (Gemara) Question: What is R. Yosi's reason?

(h) Answer: "Shema" teaches that one must say the words audibly to his own ears.

1. The first Tana expounds "Shema" -- "hear" in any language you understand.

2. R. Yosi learns both of these from "Shema."

(i) ("Cheresh" usually refers to a deaf-mute; in this discussion, it refers to a deaf person who can speak.)

(j) (Mishnah #1): A Cheresh should not take Terumah; if he did, it is valid.

(k) Question: Which Tana holds that such a person is Yotzei, but only b'Di'eved?

(l) Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): It is R. Yosi:

1. (Mishnah): If one said Keri'as Shema inaudibly (to his own ears), he was Yotzei;

2. R. Yosi says, he was not Yotzei.

3. (Rav Chisda): R. Yosi says that he is not Yotzei regarding Keri'as Shema, for it is mid'Oraisa -- but mid'Oraisa, Terumah can be taken silently;

i. Mid'Rabanan, one must recite a Berachah -- granted, he cannot hear his own Berachah, but this does not invalidate the Terumah.

(m) Answer #2: Perhaps Mishnah #1 is not like R. Yosi, rather, like R. Yehudah;

1. R. Yehudah said that he fulfills Keri'as Shema -- perhaps this is only b'Di'eved!

(n) Support: It says, "If one said..." (and not "one may say"), connoting b'Di'eved!

(o) Rejection: No, R. Yehudah permits even l'Chatchilah;

1. It says, "If one said...," to teach the extremity of R. Yosi's opinion, that even b'Di'eved he was not Yotzei.

(p) Objection: If so, who is the Tana of the following?!

1. (Beraisa #1): One may not say Birkas ha'Mazon silently; if he did, he was Yotzei.

2. It is not R. Yehudah, he permits l'Chatchilah;

3. It is not R. Yosi, he says that one is not Yotzei even b'Di'eved!

(q) Answer (and support for Answer (m)): Rather, you must say that it is like R. Yehudah, he permits only b'Di'eved.

(r) Objection: If so, who is the Tana of the following?!

1. (R. Yehudah brei d'R. Shimon ben Pazi - Beraisa #2): A Cheresh may take Terumah l'Chatchilah.

2. It is not R. Yehudah, he permits only b'Di'eved; it is not R. Yosi, he says that one is not Yotzei even b'Di'eved!

(s) Answer #1: Beraisa #2 (which permits l'Chatchilah) is like R. Yehudah himself; Mishnah #1 and Beraisa #1 are R. Yehudah in the name of his Rebbi (who is Machshir b'Di'eved):

1. (Beraisa - R. Yehudah citing R. Elazar ben Azaryah): One who says Shema must say the words audibly to his own ears -- "Shema Yisrael..."

2. R. Meir: But it says, "Asher Anochi Metzavcha ha'Yom Al Levavecha" -- intent in the heart suffices!

(t) Answer #2: R. Yehudah could agree with R. Elazar ben Azaryah, Beraisa #2 is like R. Meir.

3) MUST ONE PRAY AUDIBLY TO HIS OWN EARS? (cont.)

(a) (Mishnah #2): Anyone may recite Megilas Esther (and discharge the obligation for adults who hear him), except for a Cheresh, Shoteh (lunatic), or Katan (minor);

(b) R. Yehudah permits a Katan.

(c) Question: Who is the first Tana, who invalidates a Cheresh even b'Di'eved?

(d) Answer #1 (Rav Masnah): It is R. Yosi:

1. (Mishnah): If one said Keri'as Shema inaudibly (to his own ears), he was Yotzei;

2. R. Yosi says, he was not Yotzei.

(e) Answer #2: Perhaps the Mishnah is not R. Yosi (who says that even b'Di'eved, he was not Yotzei), rather, it is R. Yehudah, who permits b'Di'eved!

15b----------------------------------------15b

(f) Objection: This cannot be -- Cheresh is taught with [and thus certainly has the same law as] a Shoteh and Katan, who certainly are invalid even b'Di'eved.

(g) Answer: Perhaps the law of Cheresh is not exactly the same law as that of a Shoteh and Katan!

(h) Objection: We cannot establish the first Tana to be R. Yehudah, for R. Yehudah argues in the Seifa (he permits a Katan)!

(i) Answer: Perhaps the entire Mishnah is R. Yehudah; it discusses two kinds of minors, and the Mishnah is abbreviated and means as follows:

1. (Beraisa): Anyone may recite the Megilah, except for a Cheresh, Shoteh, or Katan;

2. This refers to a minor below the age of Chinuch (training in Mitzvos), but a minor at (or above) the age of Chinuch may recite l'Chatchilah.

3. This is like R. Yehudah, who is permits a Katan.

(j) Question: If Mishnah #2 like R. Yehudah, and R. Yehudah (in our Mishnah) permits only b'Di'eved, then who is the Tana of the following?!

1. (R. Yehudah brei d'R. Shimon ben Pazi - Beraisa #2): A Cheresh may take Terumah l'Chatchilah.

2. It is not R. Yehudah, he permits only b'Di'eved; it is not R. Yosi, he says that one is not Yotzei even b'Di'eved!

3. Counter-question: If R. Yehudah permits l'Chatchilah, and Beraisa #2 is like Rebbi Yehudah, who is the Tana of Beraisa #1?

i. (Beraisa #1): One may not say Birkas ha'Mazon silently; if he did, he was Yotzei.

ii. It is not R. Yehudah, he permits l'Chatchilah; it is not R. Yosi, he says that one is not Yotzei even b'Di'eved!

(k) Answer #1 (to both questions): Really, Beraisa #2 is like R. Yehudah. He permits l'Chatchilah. Beraisa #1 and Mishnah #2 are like R. Yehudah in the name of his Rebbi.

1. (Beraisa - R. Yehudah citing R. Elazar): One must say Shema audibly to his own ears -- "Shema Yisrael..."

2. R. Meir: It says "Al Levavecha" -- intent suffices!

(l) Answer #2: R. Yehudah could agree with R. Elazar, Beraisa #2 is like R. Meir.

(m) (Rav Chisda): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah in the name of R. Elazar ben Azaryah.

(n) (Rav Chisda): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah (in our Mishnah).

(o) He must teach both of these:

1. Had he taught only that the Halachah follows R. Yehudah, one might have thought that even l'Chatchilah it need not be audible to his ears;

2. Had he taught only that the Halachah follows R. Yehudah in the name of R. Elazar, one might have thought that Shema must be audible to his ears, and a Cheresh cannot be Yotzei even b'Di'eved;

(p) (Rav Yosef): They argue about Keri'as Shema, but regarding other Mitzvos, all agree that he was not Yotzei -- "Haskes u'Shema Yisrael" (you must hear yourself).

(q) Rejection (Beraisa #1): One may not say Birkas ha'Mazon silently; if he did, he was Yotzei.

(r) Correction: Rather, Rav Yosef taught that they argue about Keri'as Shema, for it says "Shema Yisrael" but regarding other Mitzvos, all agree that he was Yotzei.

(s) Question: But it says "Haskes u'Shema Yisrael"!

(t) Answer: That refers to Divrei Torah.

4) ARTICULATING THE LETTERS PROPERLY

(a) (Mishnah - R. Yosi): If he did not articulate the letters properly...

(b) (Rav Tavi): The Halachah follows the leniencies of both Tana'im (he was Yotzei if he did not hear himself, like R. Yehudah; he was Yotzei if he did not articulate the letters, like R. Yosi).

(c) (Rav Tavi) Question: "Shalosh Henah Lo Sisbanah She'ol v'Otzer Rechem" -- what is the connection of the womb to the grave?

(d) Answer: Just like the womb is a place of entry (of seed) and exit (of offspring), the grave is a place of entry (of a Mes) and exit (the dead will be revived).

1. A Kal va'Chomer teaches this -- entry into the womb is done silently, exit is noisy; entry to the grave is noisy (crying and eulogies), all the more so the exit will be noisy!

2. This refutes those who say there is no source in written Torah for Techiyas ha'Mesim.

(e) (R. Yoshiyah - Beraisa): "U'Chesavtam" -- everything must be written (in Tefilin and Mezuzos), even the commands "u'Keshartam... u'Chesavtam."

(f) (Rava): This is like R. Yehudah, who says regarding Sotah that the curses are written in the scroll, but not the commands;

1. There, he expounds, "v'Chasav Es ha'Alos ha'Eleh," to exclude the commands; here, it says only "u'Chesavtam," even commands are included.

2. Question: Why is "u'Chesavtam" needed to include the commands? Regarding Sotah, "v'Chasav" would have included the commands, R. Yehudah excludes them only because it says "ha'Eleh," and this is not written here!

3. Answer: One might have thought to learn from Sotah, for it says "v'Chasav" in both places -- therefore, it must say "u'Chesavtam."

(g) (Rav Ovadyah - Beraisa): "V'Limadtem" -- your recital must be Tam (pure), you must leave space between words that could blend one into the other;

(h) (Rava): Some examples are "Al Levavecha," "ha'Kanaf Pesil" (the second word begins with the final letter of the previous word).

(i) (R. Chama b'Rebbi Chanina): Gehinom is cooled off for one who articulates the letters -- "b'Fares Shakai Melachim Bah Tashleg b'Tzalmon" -- we read "b'Faresh... b'Tzalmaves" (if you will say the words clearly, Hash-m will cool off Gehinom).

(j) Question (R. Chama b'Rebbi Chanina): "K'Nechalim Nitayu... ka'Ahalim Nata" -- why are springs and tents mentioned together? (Rashba - we ask why this follows the verse, "Mah Tovu Ohalecha Yakov," which discusses tents -- "ka'Ahalim" refers to spices.)

(k) Answer: Just like springs bring a person (who immerses in them) from Tum'ah to Taharah, tents (Batei Medrash, in which one learns Torah) bring a person from liability (in judgment) to merit.

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