(a)Support (Beraisa): If one is saying Shema and his Rebbi or someone more important than he came:
1.If it was between the Perakim, one greets him, we need not say that he responds;
i.In it was in the middle, one greets him only if he fears him, we need not say that he responds;
2.R. Yehudah says, in the middle one greets on account of fear and responds on account of honor;
i.Between the Perakim, one greets on account of honor and responds to anyone.
(b)Question (Achi): May one interrupt Hallel or the Megilah reading [to greet someone]?
1.We may interrupt during Keri'as Shema, which is mid'Oraisa, all the more so we may interrupt these, which are mid'Rabanan;
2.Or, perhaps these are more stringent, for they publicize miracles that Hash-m did for Yisrael!
(c)Answer (R. Chiya): One may interrupt.
(d)(Rabah): On days when an individual says the full Hallel, he may interrupt between Perakim, but not in the middle of a Perek;
1.On days when an individual says the abridged Hallel, he may interrupt even in the middle of a Perek.
(e)Question: But Rav bar Sheva visited Ravina on a day when an individual says the abridged Hallel, and Ravina did not interrupt!
(f)Answer: That is because Ravina did not consider Rav bar Sheva so important that he must greet him.
(g)Question (Ashi'an): If one is fasting (Tosfos - a voluntary fast; Me'iri - even a Ta'anis Tzibur), may one taste [food, to see if it needs seasoning]?
1.Perhaps he only accepted not to eat -- tasting is not considered eating (Tosfos - but he must spit it out);
2.Or, perhaps he forbid himself to benefit from food, and tasting is benefit!
(h)Answer (R. Ami): He may taste.
(i)Support (Beraisa): One who tastes does not bless; one who is fasting may taste.
(j)Question: Up to how much is considered tasting?
(k)Answer: R. Ami and R. Asi would taste up to a Revi'is.
(l)(Rav): If one greets a friend before praying, it is as if he made him a Bamah (on which to offer Korbanos, instead of the Mizbe'ach in the Mikdash) -- "Chidlu Lachem Min ha'Adam... va'Meh Nechshav" -- we read this "Bamah."
(m)(Shmuel): The verse asks rhetorically, "ba'Meh (how) can you regard a person in front of Hash-m?!"
(n)Question (Rav Sheshes - Mishnah): Between the Perakim, one greets on account of honor, and responds (even though this is before Shemoneh Esreh)!
(o)Answer (R. Aba): Rav and Shmuel discuss one who goes to his friend's house to greet him before praying.
(p)(Rav Idi bar Avin): It is forbidden to do your needs before prayer -- "Tzedek Lefanav Yehalech v'Yasem l'Derech Pe'amav."
(q)(Rav Idi bar Avin): If one embarks on his journey after praying, Hash-m will do his desires -- "Tzedek Lefanav Yehalech v'Yasem l'Derech Pe'amav."
(r)(R. Yonah): If one does not have a dream for seven days, he is called a Rasha -- "v'Save'a Yalin Bal Yipaked Ra" -- we read this "v'Sheva."
(s)(Rav Acha citing R. Yochanan): The verse teaches that one who satiates himself with Divrei Torah before Linah (sleeping) will not receive bad tidings.
2)VA'YOMER AND EMES V'YATZIV
(a)(Mishnah): The following are between the Perakim:
(b)(R. Avahu): The Halachah follows R. Yehudah, one may not interrupt between va'Yomer and Emes v'Yatziv.
(c)(R. Avahu): He learns from "v'Hashem Elokim Emes."
(d)Question: Does one say "Emes" twice, or only once?
(e)Answer #1 (R. Avahu): He says it twice.
(f)Answer #2 (Rabah): He says it once.
(g)A man was leading the prayers in front of Rabah; Rabah heard him say "Emes" twice.
(h)Rabah: He was overcome by a craze that made him repeat "Emes."
(i)Rav Yosef: The following is a wonderful teaching!
1.(Shmuel bar Yehudah): In Eretz Yisrael, they say that in the evening one should say "Daber El Bnei Yisrael v'Amarta Aleihem," and then, "Ani Hash-m Elokeichem Emes,"
(j)Abaye: Why do you praise it? Rav Kahana taught that one should not begin (the third Parshah); if one began, he should finish it!
1.Suggestion: Perhaps saying "v'Amarta Aleihem" is not considered beginning the Parshah.
2.Rejection: R. Yitzchak taught that "Daber El Bnei Yisrael" is not considered beginning the Parshah, but "v'Amarta Aleihem" is!
(k)(Rav Papa): In Eretz Yisrael, they say that even "v'Amarta Aleihem" is not considered beginning it, until one says "v'Asu Lahem Tzitzis."
(l)(Abaye): Since they begin the Parshah in Eretz Yisrael, we (in Bavel) also begin it; since we consider "v'Amarta Aleihem" like beginning the Parshah, we finish it, as Rav Kahana taught.
(m)(Chiya bar Rava): If one said "Ani Hash-m Elokeichem," he must say Emes (v'Yatziv); if he did not say "Ani Hash-m Elokeichem," he need not say it.
(n)Question: But one must mention Yetzi'as Mitzrayim (which is in Emes v'Yatziv)!
(o)Answer: [One may thank Hash-m for Yetzi'as Mitzrayim without saying Emes v'Yatziv, such as] by saying, "Modim Anachnu Lach... she'Hotzeisanu me'Eretz Mitzrayim...."
3)THE ORDER OF THE PARSHIYOS OF SHEMA
(a)(Mishnah - R. Yehoshua ben Korchah): We say Shema before...
(b)(Beraisa - R. Shimon): It is proper that the paragraph Shema precedes v'Hayah Im Shamo'a, for Shema discusses learning, and v'Hayah Im Shamo'a discusses teaching;
1.It is proper that v'Hayah Im Shamo'a precede va'Yomer, for v'Hayah Im Shamo'a discusses teaching, and va'Yomer discusses performing [the Mitzvos].
(c)Objection: #1: Shema discusses teaching and performing in addition to learning -- "v'Shinantam... u'Keshartam... u'Chesavtam"!
(d)Objection #2: "V'Hayah Im Shamo'a" discusses performing in addition to teaching -- "u'Keshartem... u'Chesavtem"!
(e)Correction: Rather, it is proper that Shema precedes v'Hayah Im Shamo'a, for Shema discusses learning, teaching and performing, and v'Hayah Im Shamo'a discusses only teaching and performing;
1.It is proper that v'Hayah Im Shamo'a precede va'Yomer, for v'Hayah Im Shamo'a discusses teaching and performing, and va'Yomer discusses only performing.
(f)Question: R. Yehoshua ben Korchah's reason should suffice!
(g)Answer: Indeed, R. Shimon gives an additional reason:
1.It is proper that Shema precedes v'Hayah Im Shamo'a, in order to accept Ol Malchus Shamayim before Ol Mitzvos; also, Shema discusses learning, teaching and performing, and v'Hayah discusses only teaching and performing.
(h)Rav would wash his hands, say Keri'as Shema, put on Tefilin and then pray.
(i)Question (Beraisa): One who digs a burial cave for a Mes is exempt from Keri'as Shema, Tefilin, Tefilah and all other [positive] Mitzvos;
1.When the time for Shema comes, he gets up, washes his hands, puts on Tefilin, says Keri'as Shema and prays.
2.Objection: The Reisha exempts from all Mitzvos, while the Seifa obligates him [in some]!
3.Answer: The Reisha discusses when he is alone, the Seifa is when there is someone else with him (when one digs, the other prays).
4.In any case, this is unlike Rav (who would say Keri'as Shema before putting on Tefilin)!
(j)Answer: Rav holds like R. Yehoshua ben Korchah, who says that we accept Ol Malchus Shamayim (Shema) before Ol Mitzvos (Tefilin).
(k)Objection #1: R. Yehoshua ben Korchah only said this concerning the order of the Parshiyos, he did not say that reciting the Shema precedes performing Mitzvos!
(l)Objection #2: Rav does not hold like R. Yehoshua ben Korchah!
1.(R. Chiya bar Ashi): Many times I was in front of Rav, he would wash his hands, bless, teach, put on Tefilin, and say Keri'as Shema.
2.Suggestion: Perhaps he would put on Tefilin before Shema only if the time for Shema had not yet come.
3.Objection: If so, we would not learn anything from R. Chiya's testimony!
(m)Answer: He comes to argues with the opinion that we do not recite Birkas ha'Torah for Mishnah. (Ritva - really, it proves that a Berachah is needed for Midrash; the Gemara is not precise. Rashash - we used this teaching above (11b) to prove that Talmud requires Birkas ha'Torah - perhaps the text should say "Talmud" instead of Mishnah.)
(n)Question: In any case, there is a contradiction in Rav's practice!
(o)Answer: The messenger bringing Rav's Tefilin was late; so he was unable to put on Tefilin before saying Shema in the proper time.
(p)(Ula): Reciting Shema without Tefilin is like testifying "I am a liar" (he says in Shema that we must wear Tefilin, and he does not do so)!
(q)(R. Chiya bar Aba): It is as if he offered an Olah or Shelamim without the Minchah or Nesachim