12TH CYCLE DEDICATIONS
 
YOMA 57 - Dedicated in honor of 8 Av 5766, the first Yahrzeit of Mrs. Lily (Leah bas Pinchas) Kornfeld, a holocaust survivor who met all of life's challenges with courage and fortitude, by her daughter Diane and family.

1) A "HEKESH" THAT TEACHES A HALACHAH WHICH WAS DERIVED THROUGH ANOTHER "HEKESH"
OPINIONS: The Mishnah (55b) discusses where and how the blood of the Par and Sa'ir were sprinkled on Yom Kippur. First, the blood of the Par was sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim, with one Haza'ah upward and seven Haza'os downward. Second, the blood of the Sa'ir was sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim in the same manner, one Haza'ah upward and seven downward. The Kohen Gadol then went from the Kodesh ha'Kodashim into the Heichal and performed similar Haza'os towards the Paroches: one upward and seven downward from the blood of the Par, and one upward and seven downward from the blood of the Sa'ir.
The Gemara (56b) cites a Beraisa which derives from a Hekesh that the blood of the Par and the blood of the Sa'ir were sprinkled in the Heichal in the same manner (towards the Paroches) that they were sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. The Hekesh (Vayikra 16:16) associates the Ohel Mo'ed (Heichal) with the Kodesh ha'Kodashim.
The Gemara here asks how such a Hekesh can teach a law about the Haza'os in the Heichal. The Gemara earlier (55a) teaches that the sets of Haza'os for the Par and the Sa'ir (one upward and seven downward) are themselves derived through a Hekesh. The Torah specifies only the number of upward Haza'os (i.e. one) that are done with the blood of the Sa'ir; the number of downward Haza'os (i.e. seven) is derived from a Hekesh to the Haza'os of the Par. With regard to the Par, the Torah specifies only the number of downward Haza'os (i.e. seven); the number of upward Haza'os (i.e. one) is derived from a Hekesh to the Sa'ir. How can another Hekesh teach that these Haza'os are also performed in the Heichal? There is a rule that a Hekesh cannot be used to teach a Halachah for Korbanos when that Halachah is derived in the first place through a Hekesh. Only when a Halachah is written explicitly with regard to one type of Korban can a Hekesh teach that the Halachah applies to a second type of Korban.
The Gemara suggests three answers to this question. In its third answer, the Gemara says that the sprinklings performed in the Heichal are derived from the sprinklings performed in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim "at one time."
What do these words mean, and how do they answer the question that a Hekesh cannot teach a Halachah that is derived only through a Hekesh in the first place?
(a) RASHI (DH v'Iy Ba'is Eima) explains that the Haza'os of the Kodesh ha'Kodashim that are written explicitly (one upward sprinkling for the Sa'ir and seven downward sprinklings for the Par) may serve as the source for the Haza'os in the Heichal through a Hekesh, because only a single Hekesh is employed. Once a single Hekesh is used to teach a Halachah, that Hekesh can be used to teach laws which are derived from a different Hekesh in the first place (and which need a "double Hekesh" to transfer them, such as the seven downward sprinklings for the Sa'ir and the one upward sprinkling for the Par).
TOSFOS (DH Chutz) questions Rashi's explanation. He cites a number of instances in which a Hekesh is used to teach a law that is written explicitly in the verse, but the same Hekesh is not used to teach a law that is derived only from an earlier Hekesh. Tosfos explains that Rashi's intention is to say that the case here is unique in that the explicit Halachah for which the Hekesh is originally used (one upward Haza'ah for the Sa'ir and seven downward Haza'os for the Par) is an intrinsic part of the other Halachah which is derived through a double Hekesh. Both laws describe the manner in which the Haza'os were done in the Heichal. Since some of the Haza'os performed in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim are derived from a single Hekesh, the entire procedure of the Haza'os may be learned through a Hekesh. (The RITZBA, cited by Tosfos, adds that the verse itself implies that the entire procedure of the Haza'os in the Heichal should be derived from the Haza'os in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim.)
(b) The RI (cited by Tosfos) explains that the Gemara means to say that the Hekesh indeed is not used to teach a Halachah that is derived only through an earlier Hekesh. Rather, the Hekesh teaches only Halachos that are written explicitly in the verse. The number of upward Haza'os is written explicitly with regard to the Sa'ir. The Hekesh which associates the Heichal with the Kodesh ha'Kodashim derives from the Sa'ir's single upward Haza'ah in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim that there also must be one upward Haza'ah for the Sa'ir in the Heichal, in addition to one upward Haza'ah for the Par in the Heichal. Similarly, the downward Haza'os in the Heichal for both the Par and the Sa'ir are derived through a Hekesh from the downward Haza'os of the Par in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim.
(c) RABEINU CHANANEL has a different Girsa in the Gemara. The Haza'os of the Heichal are learned with (and not from) the Haza'os of the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. That is, when the Torah says, "And so shall be done in the Ohel Mo'ed," it is as though it explicitly teaches the same instructions for the Ohel Mo'ed (Heichal) as it teaches for the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. A Hekesh does not teach which Haza'os are performed in the Heichal. Rather, the verse equates the Heichal with the Kodesh ha'Kodashim with regard to the Haza'os. The only Hekesh that is used is a single Hekesh which teaches that the number of downward Haza'os for the Par and Sa'ir are the same in both the Heichal and Kodesh ha'Kodashim, and the number of upward Haza'os for the Par and Sa'ir are the same in both the Heichal and Kodesh ha'Kodashim.

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