Mishnah 1
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1)

(a)What are 'Tzaros' in the context of ...

1. ... Nashim?

2. ... Yibum?

(b)What does the Tana mean when it says that fifteen women (See Tos. Yom-Tov) exempt (See Tos. Yom-Tov) their Tzaros ... from Yibum?

(c)And what doest he mean when he includes in the P'tur ...

1. ... 'Tzaros Tzaroseihen'?

2. ... 'ad Sof ha'Olam'?

(d)What is Chalitzah?

(e)What is the Din as regards Chalitzah with one of the fiftreen Arayos and their Tzaros?

1)

(a)'Tzaros' in the context of ...

1. ... Nashim are - two (or more) women who are married to the same man.

2. ... Yibum are - two (or more) women who are married to the same man as the Ervah (the woman who is forbidden to the Yavam).

(b)When the Tana says that fifteen women (See Tos. Yom-Tov) exempt (See Tos. Yom-Tov) their Tzaros ... from Yibum, it means that - not only they are Patur from Yibum (See Tos. Yom-Tov), but so are the Tzaros .

(c)And when he includes in the P'tur ...

1. ... 'Tzaros Tzaroseihen', he means - that even if another brother subsequently married the Tzarah of the second brother and dies, then both that initial Tzarah and the second brother's other wives are forbidden regarding Yibum and Chalitzah to the brother whose relative the first wife was, and ...

2. ... 'ad Sof ha'Olam' means that - no matter how many brothers perform Yibum with the new Tzaros that subsequently fall to Yibum, they are all forbidden to the remaining brother/s.

(d)'Chalitzah' is -the ceremony performed by the Yevamah on the Yavam, which releases the Yevamah from the obligation to perform Yibum, thereby allowing her to marry another man.

(e)All of the fifteen Arayos - are also Patur from from Chalitzah (See Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'min ha'Chalitzah').

2)

(a)In connection with marrying two sisters, the Torah writes "ve'Ishah Lo Sikach Li'tzeror (Tzaros) Legalos Ervasah alehah be'Chayehah". With regard to the current Halachah, what do we learn from the word/s ...

1. ... "Lo Sikach" and "alehah"?

2. ... "Li'tzeror"?

(b)And what do we learn from the extra 'Reish' in "Litzeror", seeing as the Torah could have written "Litzor"?

(c)Although the Pasuk is talking about two sisters, which other cases of Arayos does it incorporate?

2)

(a)In connection with marrying two sisters, the Torah writes "ve'Ishah Lo Sikach Li'tzeror (Tzaros) Legalos Ervasah alehah be'Chayehah". We learn from the word/s ...

1. ... "Lo Sikach" and "alehah" - that the prohibition of marrying one's sister pertains even when there is a Mitzvah of Yibum.

2. ... "Li'tzeror" - that it extends even to the Tzarah as well ...

(b)... and from the extra 'Resh' in "Litzeror" (when the Torah could have written "Latzur") - even to the Tzarah of the Tzarah.

(c)Although the Pasuk is talking about two sisters, it incorporates - all cases of Arayos that are punishable by Kareis.

3)

(a)The first of the fifteen Arayos listed in the Mishnah is 'Bito'. Which other two cases belong to ...

1. ... this group?

2. ... the group beginning with 'Bas Ishto'?

(b)What is the difference between 'Bito' and 'Bas Ishto'?

(c)If we learn Bito me'Anusaso from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "Ervas bas Bincha O bas Bit'cha ..." (See Tos. Yom-Tov), what do we learn from the fact that in the Pasuk that forbids marrying a daughter, the Torah writes "Ervas Ishah u'Bitah" (rather than just "Bit'cha")?

3)

(a)The first of the fifteen Arayos listed in the Mishnah is 'Bito'. The other two cases that belong to ...

1. ... this group are - Bas Bito (See Tos. Yom-Tov) and Bas B'no.

2. ... the group beginning with 'Bas Ishto' are - Bas B'nah and Bas Bitah.

(b)The difference between 'Bito' and 'Bas Ishto' is that - whereas the former is (even) the daughter of a woman that he raped (or seduced), the latter is the daughter of the woman that he married.

(c)We learn Bito me'Anusaso from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "Ervas bas Bincha O bas Bit'cha ..." (See Tos. Yom-Tov), whereas from the fact that the Pasuk there writes "Ervas Ishah u'Bitah" (rather than just "Bit'cha"), we learn that - it makes no difference as to whether "Bitah" is from him or from another man.

4)

(a)Next on the list is mother-in-law. Which other two cases does it incorporate?

(b)From which Pasuk do we learn that they are included in the Parshah of incest?

(c)The Tana continues with three cases of maternal sisters (besides his wife's sister, which we discussed earlier). What is the case of Achoso me'Imo regarding Yibum?

(d)Which two other cases does it incorporate?

4)

(a)Next on the list is mother-in-law (Chamoso [See Tos. Yom-Tov]), incorporating - Eim Chamoso and Eim Chamiv ...

(b)... which we learn from the Pasuk in Acharei-Mos "Ervas Ishah u'Bitah, es Bas B'nah ve'es Bas Bitah ... ".

(c)The Tana continues with three cases of maternal sisters (besides his wife's sister, which we discussed earlier). The case of 'Achoso me'Imo' is - the Yavam's maternal sister who married his paternal brother, who subsequently died leaving no children.

(d)And the Tana incorporates - the sister of his wife and the sister of his mother (who married his paternal brother).

5)

(a)What do we learn from the Gezeirah-Shavah 'Achvah' 'Achvah' from the sons of Ya'akov?

(b)The thirteenth case is that of 'Eishes Achiv me'Imo'. What is the case?

(c)Why is she Patur from Yibum?

(d)How do we learn this from "Ervas Eishes Achicha ... "?

5)

(a)We learn from the Gezeirah-Shavah 'Achvah' 'Achvah' from the sons of Ya'akov (See Tos. Yom-Tov) - that Yibum is confined to one's paternal brother (and that one's maternal brother will be Chayav Kareis if he performs Yibum with his wife).

(b)The thirteenth case is that of 'Eishes Achiv me'Imo' - which is the case that we just discussed ...

(c)... who is Patur from Yibum, despite the fact that she now falls under the category of 'Eishes Achiv me'Aviv' - since this does not detract that she was 'Eishes Achiv me'Imo, and therefore remains forbidden.

(d)We learn this from "Ervas Eishes Achicha ... ", which comes to teach us that - she is forbidden even though she is now the wife of the Yavam's pternal brother.

6)

(a)The fourteenth case listed by the Tana is 'Eishes Achiv she'Lo Hayah be'Olamo. What is the case?

(b)From which Pasuk in Ki Seitzei do we learn that Yibum is confined to the wife of a brother who lived concurrently with the Yavam?

(c)Why is the Yevamah in this case and in the previous one (of 'Eishes Achiv me'Imo') not permitted, seeing as, in both cases, she falls to the Yavam from a brother whose wife requires Yibum?

(d)How about performing Yibum with the latter brother's other wife?

(e)The fifteenth case is that of one's daughter-in-law (to whom his deceased brother was married). What if his son was no longer alive?

6)

(a)The fourteenth case listed by the Tana is 'Eishes Achiv she'Lo Hayah be'Olamo' - the wife of Reuven (Levi, the Yavam)'s brother, where Reuven died before he was born, and with whom Shimon (a second brother who was still alive when Levi was born) then performed Yibum (See Tos. Yom-Tov), and who now dies.

(b)We learn that Yibum is confined to the wife of a brother who lived concurrently with the Yavam - from the word "Yeishvu" (in the Pasuk in Ki Seitzei "Ki Yeishvu Achim Yachdav" [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).

(c)Despite the fact that, in both this case and in the previous one (of 'Eishes Achiv me'Imo'), the Yevamah now falls to the Yavam from a brother whose wife requires Yibum she is not permitted to him - since she was initially forbidden to him, and once she is forbidden, she cannot become permitted (as we explained by Eishes Achiv me'Imo).

(d)Neither is Levi permitted to perform Yibum with Shimon's other wife - since she too is forbidden because she is a Tzaras Ervah.

(e)The fifteenth case is that of one's daughter-in-law (to whom his deceased brother was married). He is forbidden to perform Yibum with her, even though his son is no longer alive, for the same reason as the previous case.

7)

(a)If the Ervah died before the Yavam, the Tzarah becomes subject to Yibum. And the same applies if she performed Mi'un or became divorced. What is 'Mi'un'?

(b)Which other case will permit the Tzarah to make Yibum?

(c)Why can Chamoso, Eim Chamoso or Eim Chamiv not be included in the case of ...

1. ... Aylonis?

2. ... Mi'un?

7)

(a)If the Ervah died before the Yavam, the Tzarah becomes subject to Yibum. And the same applies if she performed Mi'un - a Ketanah who was married off by her mother or brothers and who leaves her husband before she turns bas-Mitzvah (See also Tos. Yom-Tov) or became divorced.

(b)The other case that will permit the Tzarah to make Yibum is - if she turns out to be an Aylonis (who has no womb and who cannot therefore have children).

(c)Chamoso, Eim Chamoso or Eim Chamiv cannot be included in the cases of ...

1. ... Aylonis and of ...

2. ... Mi'un - because they had a child and can therefore neither fall under the category of the former not be subject to the latter, since she must be a Gedolah (and only a Ketanah can perform Mi'un, as we explained).

8)

(a)Why does the Tana not include 'Imo' (whom his father raped) in its initial list?

(b)What is the Halachah?

8)

(a)The Tana does not include 'Imo' (whom his father raped) in its initial list - because he holds that one is not permitted to marry the woman whom one's father raped (in which case it is impossible for the Yavam's brother to have married his mother.

(b)The Halachah however is - that one may (in which case there are sixteen cases of Ervah who exempt one's Tzaros from making Yibum ... , and not fifteen).

Mishnah 2
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9)

(a)We already defined the case of 'Potros Tzaroseihen' in the previous Mishnah. In a case where Shimon marries Rachel, his brother Reuven's daughter, and after he dies, Levi performs Yibum with her Tzarah Le'ah, and subsequently dies without children, leaving behind Le'ah and another wife called Rivkah, is Reuven permitted to perform Yibum with the latter?

(b)Is she permitted to remarry without Chalitzah?

(c)What does the Mishnah say about Le'ah in the previous case ...

1. ... if Rachel died before Shimon or if Shimon divorced her?

2. ... assuming that Rachel was a Ketanah when Shimon married her and could have performed Mi'un but did not (See Tos. Yom-Tov)?

(d)Why is Le'ah ...

1. ... Chayav Chalitzah?

2. ... not subject to Yibum?

9)

(a)We already defined the case of 'Potros Tzaroseihen' in the previous Mishnah. In a case where Shimon marries Rachel, his brother Reuven's daughter, and after he dies, Levi performs Yibum with her Tzarah Le'ah, and subsequently dies without children, leaving behind Le'ah and another wife called Rivkah - Reuven is forbidden to perform Yibum with the latter, who is a Tzaras Tzarah, and who would be forbidden, even if she was the hundredth such Tzarah ...

(b)... and Rivkah is permitted to remarry without Chalitzah - as we learned in the previous Mishnah.

(c)The Mishnah rules that in the previous case ...

1. ... if Rachel died before Shimon or if Shimon divorced her (See Tos. Yom-Tov) - Reuven may perform Yibum with Le'ah.

2. ... assuming that Rachel was a Ketanah when Shimon married her and could have performed Mi'un but did not (See Tos. Yom-Tov) - Le'ah is subject to Chalitzah but not Yibum .

(d)She is ...

1. ... Chayav to perform Chalitzah mi'de'Rabbanan - because, since the Kidushin of a Ketanah who is married off by her mother or brother is only mi'de'Rabbanan, and cannot remove the Zikah (the ties that bind a Yevamah to the Yavam), of the Tzarah, which is d'Oraysa.

2. ... not subject to Yibum- since she resembles a Tzaras Ervah.

Mishnah 3
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10)

(a)The Mishnah lists six Arayos that are more stringent than the above fifteen. In what way are they more stringent?

(b)If the ...

1. ... first is Imo, what is the second?

2. ... third is Achos Aviv, what is the fourth?

3. ... fifth is Eishes Achi Aviv (the wife of his paternal uncle), what is the sixth?

10)

(a)The Mishnah lists six Arayos that are more stringent than the above fifteen - inasmuch as they can only be married to strangers but not to one's brother.

(b)The ...

1. ... first is Imo, the second - Eishes Aviv.

2. ... third is Achos Aviv, the fourth - Achoso me'Aviv.

3. ... fifth is Eishes Achi Aviv (the wife of his paternal uncle), the sixth - Eishes Achiv me'Aviv (the wife of his paternal brother).

11)

(a)What is the Din if the Tzaros of these Arayos, there where both women are married to ...

1. ... a stranger?

2. ... the brother, in spite of the fact that he married the Ervah be'Isur?

(b)On what principle is this concession based?

11)

(a)If both the Ervah and the Tzarah are married to ...

1. ... a stranger, or even to ...

2. ... the brother, in spite of the fact that he married the Ervah be'Isur - he is permitted to marry the Tzarah ...

(b)This concession is based - on the principle that it is only where the Ervah falls to him be'Yibum (be'Makom Mitzvah) that the Tzarah is forbidden (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

Mishnah 4
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12)

(a)The Din of Tzaras Ervah is a Machlokes between Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel. The author of the previous Mishnos is Beis Hillel. What do Beis Shamai say?

(b)What is their reason?

(c)In what way is Beis Shamai's ruling a Chumra?

(d)Why, on the other hand, do Beis Hillel not invalidate one of the fifteen Yevamos who performed Chalitzah from the Kehunah?

12)

(a)The Din of Tzaras Ervah is a Machlokes between Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel. The author of the previous Mishnos is Beis Hillel. Beis Shamai - permit the Tzaros of the fifteen Arayos to the brothers ...

(b)... because they do not hold of Beis Hillel's D'rashah from "Litz'ror".

(c)Beis Shamai's ruling is a Chumra - inasmuch as if one of the brothers did perform Chalitzah with the Tzarah, the Chalitzah is valid, and she is forbidden to marry a Kohen.

(d)On the other hand, Beis Hillel do not invalidate one of the fifteen Yevamos who performed Chalitzah from the Kehunah - since the Chalitzah has no more validity than doing Chalitzah with a strange woman.

13)

(a)If the Yavam performs Yibum with the Tzaras Ervah, Beis Shamai permit the latter to marry a Kohen in the event that the Yavam dies. What do Beis Hillel say?

(b)Why is that?

13)

(a)If the Yavam performs Yibum with the Tzaras Ervah, Beis Shamai permit the latter to marry a Kohen in the event that the Yavam dies. Beis Hillel forbid it ...

(b)... since, having had relations with a man who is forbidden to her, she is a Zonah (who is forbidden to marry a Kohen).

14)

(a)What does the Mishnah tell us about the relationship between Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel regarding ...

1. ... the current issue?

2. ... Keilim, in spite of the many places where the one considered certain vessels Tahor, and the other, Tamei?

(b)What was the basis of this interaction?

(c)Why is the former such a big Chidush? What problem could it cause?

(d)What does the Mishnah finally say about the Taharos and the Tum'os which these rendered Tahor and those rendered Tamei?

14)

(a)Regarding the relationship between Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel, the Mishnah informs us that...

1. ... despite the fact that what the one forbids the others permits and what the invalidates, those validates, the two groups did not refrain from intermarrying.

2. ... in spite of the many places where the one considered certain vessels Tahor, and the other, Tamei - they did not refrain from borrowing each others' vessels.

(b)The basis of this interaction was - the trust that they had in one another, knowing that if there was a problem, they would pass on the relevant information to each other.

(c)The Chidush contained in the former ruling is particularly blatant - bearing in mind that the children of the Tzaros who had performed Yibum according to Beis Shamai, were Mamzerim according to Beis Hillel.

(d)The Mishnah finally states that also the Taharos and the Tum'os which these rendered Tahor and those rendered Tamei - they would not desist from lending each other (See Tos.Yom-Tov).

15)

(a)We query the fact that Beis Shamai permit the Tzaros to the brothers, whereas Beis Hillel forbid them, from the Pasuk "Lo Sisgod'du". What is the problem?

(b)How do we solve the problem?

15)

(a)We query the fact that Beis Shamai permit the Tzaros to the brothers, whereas Beis Hillel forbid them from the Pasuk "Lo Sisgod'du" - which means that it is forbidden to have different groups issuing diverse rulings in the same town.

(b)We solve the problem - by confining "Lo Sisgod'du" to one Beis-Din, but two Batei-Din (such as Beis Shamai and Beis Hillel) are permitted to operate in one town.

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