1)

(a)How does Eifah initially explain Rebbi Elazar in our Mishnah, who forbids Yibum with a woman whose husband divorced her and took her back?

(b)On what basis do we reject his suggestion that, this being the case, she does not require Chalitzah either?

(c)Eifah is therefore at a loss to understand Rebbi Elazar's reasoning. According to Abaye, Rebbi Elazar is in a quandary. Which quandary?

(d)Rava explains that the prohibition (to perform Yibum) itself is a decree because, although everyone knows about the divorce, not everyone knows about the fact that he took her back. How does he circumvent the problem that it ought to be the opposite (i.e. most people would know that they are now living together, but not necessarily about their previous divorce)?

1)

(a)Eifah attributes Rebbi Elazar in our Mishnah, who forbids Yibum with a woman whose husband divorced her and took her back, to the fact that she was once forbidden to the Yavam (since it is the first marriage that creates the tie with the Yavam, as we explained earlier).

(b)We reject his suggestion that, this being the case, she does not require Chalitzah either - on the basis of a Beraisa, where Rebbi Elazar himself specifically requires Chalitzah.

(c)Eifah is therefore at a loss to understand Rebbi Elazar's reasoning. According to Abaye, Rebbi Elazar is in a quandary - he is not sure whether it is the death of the husband that creates the tie with the Yavam (in which case even Yibum would be permitted), or the first marriage (in which case even Chalitzah will not be necessary).

(d)Rava explains that the prohibition (to perform Yibum) itself is a decree because, although everyone knows about the divorce, not everyone knows about the fact that he took her back. He circumvents the problem that it ought to be the opposite (i.e. most people would know that they are now living together, but not necessarily about their previous divorce) - by establishing the case where the husband took her back in the evening and died the following morning (in which case more people will know about the divorce than about the second marriage).

2)

(a)According to Rav Ashi, Rebbi Elazar decrees the previous cases in our Mishnah on account of a Yesomah b'Chayei ha'Av. How do we prove this answer from the fact that the Tana inserts a Yesomah b'Chayei ha'Av in the Seifa?

(b)In the Beraisa, the Chachamim agree with Rebbi Elazar (that the Yavam may not perform Yibum with her) in a case where the father married off his daughter when she was a Ketanah and her husband divorced her and took her back when she was still a Ketanah and died. What do they say in a case where he took her back when she was already a Gedolah?

(c)Under which circumstances will they even agree with Rebbi Elazar if he took her back when she was still a Ketanah?

(d)How do we prove from this Beraisa that Rav Ashi's explanation is the authentic one? How do we know that Rebbi Elazar (who says in the Seifa 'Choletzes v'Lo Misyabemes') bases his opinion on Yesomah b'Chayei ha'Av?

2)

(a)According to Rav Ashi, Rebbi Elazar decrees the previous cases in our Mishnah on account of a Yesomah b'Chayei ha'Av. We prove this answer from the fact that the Tana inserts a Yesomah b'Chayei ha'Av in the Mishnah - because in itself, it is obvious that she is forbidden to the Yavam, and the Tana can only have inserted it to inform us that it is the source of Rebbi Elazar's stringent ruling in the Reisha.

(b)In the Beraisa, the Chachamim agree with Rebbi Elazar (that the Yavam may not perform Yibum with her) in a case where the father married off his daughter when she was a Ketanah and her husband divorced her and took her back when she was still a Ketanah and died. Should he take her back after she has already become a Gedolah however - the Yavam may even perform Yibum, because the second marriage too, is valid min ha'Torah.

(c)And they will even agree with Rebbi Elazar in a case where he took her back when she was still a Ketanah - if they were still living together when she became a Gedolah (since the first Bi'ah after that will acquire her min ha'Torah).

(d)We prove from this Beraisa that Rav Ashi's explanation is the authentic one - because the Tana begins with the words 'u'Modim Chachamim b'Yesomah b'Chayei ha'Av ... ', implying that that is Rebbi Elazar's basis for his rulings in the subsequent cases, where he says 'Choletzes v'Lo Misyabemes'.

3)

(a)Rava asked Rav Nachman whether, according to Rebbi Elazar, the Yavam may perform Yibum with the Ketanah's Tzarah. What did he reply?

(b)What is wrong with the Beraisa which states 'Hi v'Tzarasah Choletzes'?

(c)How do we initially amend it?

(d)Why is this not a disproof for Rav Nachman's reply to Rava, who holds (in a.) that the Tzarah may even perform Yibum?

3)

(a)Rava asked Rav Nachman whether, according to Rebbi Elazar, the Yavam may perform Yibum with the Ketanah's Tzarah. He replied - that the Ketanah herself is only a Gezeirah, so to forbid her Tzarah would be a 'Gezeirah l'Gezeirah'.

(b)The Beraisa, which states 'Hi v'Tzarasah Choletzes', cannot be correct - because it would not be necessary for both Tzaros to perform Chalitzah.

(c)We initially amend it - to read 'O Hi O Tzarasah Choletzes'.

(d)This is not a disproof for Rav Nachman's reply to Rava (who holds (in a.) that the Tzarah may even perform Yibum) - because once we are forced to alter the text, we may as well alter it to read 'Hi Choletzes, v'Tzarasah, O Choletzes O Misyabemes.'

4)

(a)If two brothers are married to two sisters ...

1. ... who are Yesomos Ketanos, and one of them dies, what happens to his wife?

2. ... one a Gedolah, and one a Ketanah, who are both Charashos (Rashi does not appear to have this word in his text), if the husband of the Ketanah dies?

(b)If the husband of the Gedolah dies, Rebbi Eliezer maintains that we teach the Ketanah to make Mi'un, so that the Yavam can perform Yibum with the Gedolah. On which principle is his ruling based?

4)

(a)If two brothers are married to two sisters ...

1. ... who are Yesomos Ketanos, and one of them dies - his wife goes out (without Yibum or Chalitzah) because of Achos Ishto (since the marriage of both of them is only mid'Rabanan).

2. ... one a Gedolah, and one a Ketanah, who are both Charashos (Rashi does not appear to have this word in his text), if the husband of the Ketanah dies - she too goes out because of Achos Ishto.

(b)If the husband of the Gedolah dies, Rebbi Eliezer maintains that we teach the Ketanah to make Mi'un, to enable the Yavam to perform Yibum with the Gedolah - because he holds 'Yesh Zikah'.

5)

(a)Raban Gamliel disagrees with Rebbi Eliezer. What does he say?

(b)On what grounds does he disagree with Rebbi Eliezer?

(c)Why can the Gedolah not perform Chalitzah immediately?

(d)Rebbi Yehoshua bemoans the unfortunate fate of both women, because, in his opinion, the man's wife goes out with a Get and his Yevamah with Chalitzah. Since he holds 'Yesh Zikah', like Rebbi Eliezer, why does he disagree with his ruling?

5)

(a)Raban Gamliel disagrees with Rebbi Eliezer. According to him - should she make Mi'un, well and good; but if not, the Yevamah waits until the Ketanah grows-up, and then goes out because of Achos Ishto.

(b)He disagrees with Rebbi Eliezer - because he holds 'Ein Zikah'.

(c)The Gedolah cannot perform Chalitzah immediately - because then the Ketanah would be forbidden because of Achos Chalutzaso.

(d)Rebbi Yehoshua bemoans the unfortunate fate of both women, because, in his opinion, the man's wife goes out with a get and his Yevamah with Chalitzah. Even though he holds 'Yesh Zikah', like Rebbi Eliezer, he nevertheless disagrees with his ruling - because he holds that one should avoid Mi'un at all costs (even if it is for a Devar Mitzvah).

6)

(a)Bar Kapara quoting a Beraisa, advises that one sticks to three things and keeps well away from three others. The three things that one should ...

1. ... stick to are Chalitzah and making peace between warring parties. What is the third?

2. ... keep away from are Mi'un and Pikdonos (accepting to look after other people's articles). What is the third?

(b)The advice to keep well away from Mi'un seems to conform with Rebbi Yehoshua in our Mishnah. How do we reconcile it even with Rebbi Eliezer?

(c)Bar Kapara's advice regarding ...

1. ... Chalitzah is based on the opinion of Aba Shaul. What does Aba Shaul say?

2. ... making peace is based on the Pasuk in Tehilim "Bakesh Shalom v'Radfeihu". What does Rebbi Avahu learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Rodef" and the Pasuk in Mishlei "Rodef Tzedakah va'Chesed, Yimtza Chayim Tzedakah v'Chavod"?

(d)How does that tie up with the Beraisa that we recite every morning in Shacharis ('Eilu Devarim she'Adam Ochel Peiroseihem ba'Olam ha'Zeh ... ')?

6)

(a)Bar Kapara quoting a Beraisa, advises that one sticks to three things and keeps well away from three others. The three things that one should ...

1. ... stick to are Chalitzah, making peace between warring parties - and having one's Nedarim nullified.

2. ... keep away from are Mi'un, Pikdonos (accepting to look after other people's articles) - and acting as a guarantor for a loan.

(b)The advice to keep well away from Mi'un seems to conform with Rebbi Yehoshua in our Mishnah. We reconcile it even with Rebbi Eliezer however - by establishing that he does encourage Mi'un when it is for a Devar Mitzvah (to enable a Yavam to perform Yibum).

(c)Bar Kapara's advice regarding ...

1. ... Chalitzah is based on the opinion of Aba Shaul - who says that if someone acquires his Yevamah for any motive other than for the Mitzvah of Yibum, it is considered as if he was guilty of incest, and the child is almost as if he was a Mamzer.

2. ... making peace is based on the Pasuk in Tehilim "Bakesh Shalom v'Radfeihu". Rebbi Avahu learns from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Rodef" and the Pasuk in Mishlei "Rodef Tzedakah va'Chesed, Yimtza Chayim Tzedakah v'Chavod" - that pursuing peace is a branch of Chesed ...

(d)... and that it is one of those Mitzvos for which one receives reward in both worlds, life and Tzedakah in the World to Come (the principle) and honor in this world (the fruits [in similar vein to the Beraisa that we recite every morning in Shacharis ('Eilu Devarim she'Adam Ochel Peiroseihem ba'Olam ha'Zeh ... '). (One wonders whether one could not learn the other way round: life and Tzedakah in this world and honor in the World to Come).

109b----------------------------------------109b

7)

(a)'be'Hafaras Nedarim k'Rebbi Nasan'. How does Rebbi Nasan consider someone who ...

1. ... makes a Neder?

2. ... someone who fulfills it (rather than having it rescinded)?

(b)Having made the Neder, why should he be made to rescind it?

(c)Why should one keep one's distance from Mi'un?

(d)And why should one keep one's distance from Pikdonos? Whose articles are we talking about?

7)

(a)'be'Hafaras Nedarim k'Rebbi Nasan'. Rebbi Nasan considers someone who ...

1. ... makes a Neder - as if he had constructed a Bamah (an altar - an act that became forbidden once the Beis Hamikdash was built).

2. ... someone who fulfills it (rather than having it rescinded) - as if he had sacrificed on it.

(b)Despite the fact that he has already made the Neder, he is made to rescind it, to prevent him from getting into the habit of making Nedarim.

(c)One should keep one's distance from Mi'un - because the girl might later regret it.

(d)And one should keep one's distance from Pikdonos - referring specifically to receiving a Pikadon from a townsman, who knows the layout of his house well and is likely to come and take his Pikadon without the Ba'al ha'Bayis' knowledge, then claim it again (see also Agados Maharsha).

8)

(a)... 'and from acting as a guarantor for a loan'. This applies specifically to Arvei Sheltzion. What are 'Arvei Sheltzion'?

(b)This may be the name of a place. It might also be the acronym of 'Shlof Dutz'. What does 'Shlof Dutz' mean?

(c)This is, in fact, one of the three things which Rebbi Yitzchak extrapolates from the Pasuk in Mishlei "Ra Yaro'a Ki Areiv Zar". Zarim also pertains to Gerim. What did Rebbi Chelbo say about Gerim (to which this Pasuk hints)?

8)

(a)... 'and from acting as a guarantor for a loan'. This applies specifically to Arvei Sheltzion - a guarantor to whom the creditor has the right to go immediately to claim his debt (without first approaching the debtor).

(b)'Sheltzion' may be the name of a place. It might also be the acronym of 'Shlof Dutz' - meaning to 'remove oneself' (from the debtor) and to 'attach oneself' to the guarantor.

(c)This is, in fact, one of the three things which Rebbi Yitzchak extrapolates from the Pasuk "Ra Yaro'a Ki Arev Zar". Zarim also pertains to Gerim, about whom Rebbi Chelbo said - that Gerim are troublesome to Yisrael like (the plague of) Sapachas (a form of Tzara'as) because they do not observe the Mitzvos with the necessary care (see also Tosfos 47b. DH 'Kashim').

9)

(a)The third thing to which the Pasuk hints is 'ha'Toke'a Atzmo li'Dvar Halachah'. Rebbi Yosi explains 'Kol ha'Omer Ein Lo Torah, Ein Lo Torah'. This statement is so obvious that it is unacceptable. How do we initially emend it?

(b)But that too, is obvious. So we emend it further to conform with Rav Papa's interpretation of the Pasuk in Va'eschanan "v'Limadtem va'Asisem". What does Rav Papa extrapolate from there?

(c)What is now the correct version of Rebbi Yosi's statement?

(d)Alternatively, we accept the first emendation ('Kol ha'Omer Ein Lo Ela Torah ... '). How do we now interpret it?

(e)What can we extrapolate from there?

9)

(a)The third thing to which the Pasuk hints is 'ha'Toke'a Atzmo li'Devar Halachah'. Rebbi Yosi explains 'Kol ha'Omer Ein Lo Torah, Ein Lo Torah'. This statement is so obvious that it is unacceptable. We initially emend it to read - 'Kol ha'Omer Ein Lo Ela Torah, Ein Lo Ela Torah'.

(b)But that too, is obvious. So we emend it further to conform with Rav Papa's interpretation of the Pasuk "v'Limadtem va'Asisem" - from which Rav Papa extrapolates that whatever is subject to fulfilling, is subject to learning (meaning that learning Torah without keeping it is absolutely valueless).

(c)The correct version of Rebbi Yosi's statement is therefore - 'Kol ha'Omer Ein Lo Ela Torah, Afilu Torah Ein Lo'.

(d)Alternatively, we accept the initial emendation ('Kol ha'Omer Ein Lo Ela Torah, Ein Lo Ela Torah') - pertaining to someone who teaches Torah (but not with the intention of fulfilling his teachings himself). He receives reward for the teaching, but not for the Mitzvos that his Talmidim subsequently fulfill ...

(e)... from which we can extrapolate that - if one taught with the added intention of fulfilling the Mitzvos himself, he would indeed share in the reward that his Talmidim receive for fulfilling the Mitzvos).

10)

(a)A third explanation of 'ha'Toke'a Atzmo li'Dvar Halachah' pertains to a Dayan. What is the case?

(b)Based on the Pasuk in Shir ha'Shirim "Hinei Mitaso she'li'Shlomo Shishim Giborim Saviv Lah .... mi'Pachad ba'Leilos", what does Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni Amar Rebbi Yonasan say about a Dayan?

(c)Who are the "Giborim" mentioned there?

10)

(a)A third explanation of 'ha'Toke'a Atzmo l'Devar Halachah' pertains to a Dayan - who knows the Halachah, and who issues rulings based on what he extrapolates from that knowledge, without first consulting his Rebbe.

(b)Based on the Pasuk in Shir ha'Shirim "Hinei Mitaso she'li'Shlomo Shishim Giborim Saviv Lah .... mi'Pachad ba'Leilos", Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni Amar Rebbi Yonasan says - that a Dayan in the process of judging, should consider as if a sword was placed between his thighs, and Gehinom was open beneath him.

(c)The "Giborim" mentioned there - refers to the Dayanim.

11)

(a)According to Raban Gamliel in our Mishnah, when the Ketanah grows-up, the Yevamah goes out without even the need to perform Chalitzah. Rebbi Elazar asked Rav what his reason is: One of the options is that the Kidushin 'grows with the Ketanah'. What does this mean?

(b)What is the other option?

(c)Rav replied that the latter explanation was the correct one. What did Rav Sheshes comment on that?

11)

(a)According to Raban Gamliel in our Mishnah, when the Ketanah grows-up, the Yevamah goes out without even the need to perform Chalitzah. Rebbi Elazar asked Rav for Raban Gamliel's reason: One of the options is that the Kidushin 'grows with the Ketanah' - meaning that, the moment she becomes a Gedolah, the Kidushin becomes valid retroactively, revealing that the Zikah of the Yevamah was not effective.

(b)The other option is - that it is the Bi'ah after she becomes a Gedolah that renders her married to her husband, and the reason that the Yevamah has to wait is because he holds 'Ein Zikah' (like we explained in the Mishnah).

(c)When Rav replied that the latter explanation was the correct one, at which, Rav Sheshes commented - that Rav must have been asleep when he said that.

12)

(a)Rav Sheshes comment is based on the Beraisa 'ha'Mekadesh es ha'Ketanah, Kidushehah Teluyin'. How does he interpret it?

(b)How did Ravin Brei d'Rav Nachman interpret the Beraisa, to reconcile it with Rav?

(c)What does the girl mean when she declares 'He is better than me, but I am better than him'?

12)

(a)Rav Sheshes comment is based on the Beraisa 'ha'Mekadesh es ha'Ketanah, Kidushehah Teluyin', which he interprets to mean - that, as soon as the Ketanah grows-up, the Kidushin takes effect retroactively.

(b)To reconcile the Beraisa with Rav, Ravin B'rei d'Rav Nachman interprets it to mean - that as long as she is a Ketanah, her Kidushin hangs in the balance; in the event that they are intimate after she grows-up, they are married; but until then, they are not.

(c)When the girl declares 'He is better than me, but I am better than him', she is referring to the period between her Gadlus and the first Bi'ah (like Ravin Brei d'Rav Nachman). What she means is - that he has the right to divorce her should he wish, but she has the right to make Mi'un should she wish (see Tosfos DH 'Hu Adif').

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