[28a - 38 lines; 28b - 32 lines]

*********************GIRSA SECTION*********************

We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Mishnah, Gemara and Rosh.

[1] Gemara 28a [line 18]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #6 (this is also the Girsa of the Rosh)

[2] Gemara 28b [line 27]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #6 (this is also the Girsa of the Rosh)

[3] Gemara [line 29]:

Should be corrected as suggested by Shitah Mekubetzes #8

[4] Rosh 28b DH u'Mi Havah " :

The word "ba'Ma'arav" is unnecessary


1)[line 11] SHE'YAVOR LO- that he should select for himself

2)[line 14]"[ .] [ ]""[OMER L'RASHA 'TZADIK ATAH,' YIKVU'HU LE'UMIM, YIZ'AMUHU LE'UMIM.] VELA'MOCHICHIM YIN'AM; [VA'ALEIHEM TAVO VIRKAS TOV.]"- "[He who says to the wicked, 'You are righteous;' him the people shall curse; nations shall loathe him.] But those who rebuke him shall have delight, [and a good blessing shall come on them.]" (Mishlei 24:24-25)

3)[line 16]" [ ]""EINAI B'NE'EMNEI ERETZ, LA'SHEVES IMADI; [HOLECH B'DERECH TAMIM, HU YESHARSEINI.]"- "My eyes shall be upon the faithful of the land, that they may dwell with me; [he who walks in the way of integrity, he shall serve me.]" (Tehilim 101:6)

4)[line 19]" ""MOCHI'AH ADAM ACHARAI CHEN YIMTZA MI'MACHALIK LASHON"- "He who rebukes a man afterwards shall find more favor than he who flatters with the tongue." (Mishlei 28:23)

5)[line 30]HATZBI'U- put out one or two fingers

6)[line 30]GUDAL- the thumb

7)[line 33]PISHPESH- the small door or gate contained in (or next to) a larger one

8)[line 34]ACHSADRA- in the area inside and adjacent to the walls of the Azarah that was covered with a roof supported by pillars

9)[line 35] MEKOM OSEI CHAVITIN- VS #19; TY #21. The place where the Chavitin were prepared (see next entry)


(a)The Minchas Chavitin is brought by the Kohen Gadol every day. It consists of 1/10 of an Eifah (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) of wheat flour made into twelve wafers or rolls. They were fried in olive oil in a flat pan after being boiled and baked (this is the ruling of the RAMBAM, but see Menachos 50b). Next, the rolls are folded without breaking them (Pesisah). Levonah is added, and Hagashah and Haktarah are performed (see Background to Menachos 89:14:b:1).

(b)Half of the rolls were offered in the morning and half towards evening (Vayikra 6:13). They were completely burned on the Mizbe'ach. The Chavitin had to be brought from the money of the Kohen Gadol, but he did not personally have to offer them on the Mizbe'ach. The amount of oil that was used for each of the Chavitin rolls was one Revi'is (approximately 75, 86.4 or 150 cc, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions), a total of three Lugin for the entire Minchah.

(c)An ordinary Kohen, on the day that he begins his service in the Beis ha'Mikdash, must bring a Korban Minchah that is the same as the Minchas Chavitin that the Kohen Gadol brings every day (Vayikra 6:13). His Korban is known as the Minchas Chinuch (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aseh ha'Korbanos 13:2-4).


(a)It is a Mitzvas Aseh for the Kohanim to wash their hands and feet whenever they enter the Heichal or the Azarah of the Beis ha'Mikdash or when they do any Avodah (Divine service), as it states in Shemos 30:19-21, "v'Rachatzu Aharon u'Vanav Mimenu..." (Sanhedrin 83b). If a Kohen transgresses intentionally, and performs an Avodah without washing his hands and feet, he is Chayav Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and the Avodah is invalid (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #106).

(b)A Kohen places his right hand on his right foot and his left hand on his left foot, and bends over. Another Kohen sprinkles water from the Kiyor (VS #31, TY #52) on his hands and feet (or, if he is alone, he places his hands and feet under the faucet of the Kiyor). Kidush Yadayim v'Raglayim is an Avodah, and therefore must be performed while standing.

(c)A Kohen has to wash his hands and feet only once every day, as long as he makes sure that they did not become Teme'im or dirty, and as long as he has not left the Azarah. There is a disagreement as to whether a Kohen who did Avodah all night is required to wash his hands and feet again in the morning.

(d)If a Kohen transgressed intentionally, and performed the Avodah without washing his hands and feet, he is Chayav Misah b'Yedei Shamayim and his Avodah is disqualified (SEFER HA'CHINUCH #106).

12)[line 37]HA'MACHTAH- the shovel

13)[last line]HA'MA'ARACHAH- the burning wood-pile on the Mizbe'ach


14)[line 2] MUCHNI LA'KIYOR- the pulley used to raise and lower the Kiyor

15)[line 5] []HEILACH [V'HEILACH]- to both sides

16)[line 6] HA'ME'UKALOS HA'PENIMIYOS- the inner [coals which are] consumed

17)[line 7] HOLECH L'MIZRACHO SHEL KEVESH- VS #28; TY #48. He would walk on the eastern side of the ramp

18)[line 10] MUR'AS HA'OF- the crop of the Olas ha'Of

19)[line 10] DISHUN MIZBE'ACH HA'PENIMI- the ashes collected from the Mizbe'ach of Ketores

20)[line 10] DISHUN HA'MENORAH- and the ashes collected from the burned wicks and the leftover oil of the Menorah (see Insights to Yoma 24:2)

21)[line 13]" ' ""LO SITA LECHA ASHEIRAH, KOL ETZ, ETZEL MIZBACH ..."- "You shall not plant an Asheirah tree, any tree, near the altar [of HaSh-m, your G-d, which you shall make.]" (Devarim 16:21)

22)[line 15]ASHEIRAH

(a)Asheirah is a tree that serves as a form of Avodah Zarah. (Asheirah was a popular fertility goddess in the Near East. She is identified with Astarte (Ashtaros) and Aphrodite.) An Asheirah tree must be cut down or annulled. No benefit may be derived from it.

(b)The Mishnah (Avodah Zarah 48a) lists three types of Asheirah trees: 1. A tree that the owner originally planted to worship as Avodah Zarah; 2. A tree that the owner stripped bare of any branches, shoots and the like, either with the intention of serving as an Avodah Zarah the entire tree or only the new growth; 3. A tree under which the owner placed an Avodah Zarah.

23)[line 20]"[ ] [ ]""[VEHA'ESH AL HE'MIZBE'ACH TUKAD BO, LO SICHBEH, U'VI'ER ALEHA HA'KOHEN ETZIM BA'BOKER BA'BOKER;] V'ARACH ALEHA HA'OLAH, [V'HIKTIR ALEHA CHELVEI HA'SHELAMIM.]"- "[The fire of the altar shall be ignited on it (with the remains of the offerings) and shall not be extinguished, and the Kohen shall kindle wood on it each morning; on this wood] he shall arrange the burnt offering [and burn on it the choice parts of the peace offerings.]" (Vayikra 6:5)

24)[line 20] HA'OLAH, OLAH RISHONAH- when the verse states, "ha'Olah" (Vayikra 6:5), it refers to the first Olah that is offered every day, the Olas ha'Tamid (see Background to Tamid 25:1). Rava derives from this verse that the Tamid must be the first Korban brought every day.

25)[line 21] L'HACHEM CHAMIM L'REVICHAH- to heat up water for the preparation of the Chavitin (which are called "Revichah" since one of the processes in their preparation is boiling, as the verse states in Vayikra 6:14, "Murbeches Tevi'enah" see above, entry #10)


26)[line 25]HA'MAGREFOS- the scoops/shovels for the ashes

27)[line 25]HA'TZINOROS- the pokers, shaped like curved hooks, that were used to turn over the parts of the sacrifices on the Mizbe'ach

28)[line 27]NIS'AKLU- consumed


(a)The Mizbach ha'Olah of the Beis ha'Mikdash consisted of three concrete and stone platforms poured one on top of the other. The Yesod (bottom platform) was thirty-two Amos long, thirty-two Amos wide and one Amah high. The second platform was thirty Amos long, thirty Amos wide and five Amos high. The third platform (which the Rambam calls "Mekom ha'Ma'arachah"), upon which the sacrifices were burned, was twenty-eight Amos long, twenty-eight Amos wide, and three Amos high. A Keren (horn), which was a one-Amah cube, was poured on each corner of the upper platform. (RAMBAM Hilchos Beis ha'Bechirah 2:5-8)

(b)The Yesod protruded outward one Amah further than the middle section on two complete sides, the northern and the western. It protruded on the eastern and southern sides only for the length of one Amah from the northern and western corners. As such, there was no Yesod on the southeastern corner. The blood of many of the Korbanos was cast on the sides of the Mizbe'ach above the Yesod, and it ran down to the Yesod (Zevachim 37a, based upon Vayikra 5:9). The remainder of the blood of animal Korbanos was poured directly onto the Yesod, as it states in the Torah (Shemos 29:12; Vayikra 4:7; etc.). Omitting this last procedure does not prevent atonement since it is not a requirement for atonement.

(c)The Kohanim walked upon the part of the middle platform that jutted out one Amah on each side past the upper platform. This was called the "Sovev", because it encircled the Mizbe'ach.

(d)The Keranos were hollow. (RAMBAM ibid. 2:8)

(e)The ramp was thirty-two Amos long and sixteen Amos wide, and was separated from the south side of the Mizbe'ach by a hair's breadth (Pesachim 77a, Zevachim 62b). It was indented on the bottom, at the face of the Mizbe'ach, such that it covered the Sovev.

30)[line 30]TAPU'ACH- the rounded mound of ashes from the Korbanos that was in the center of the Mizbe'ach

31)[line 31] K'SHELOSH ME'OS KOR - like three hundred Kor (DRY MEASURES)

(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:

1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in

2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in

3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in

4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin

5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin

6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin

7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim

8.1 Beitzah = 2 or 3 k'Zeisim, according to the varying opinions

(b)In modern-day measures, the k'Zayis is approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.05 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Therefore 300 Kor is approximately equal to 64,800, 74,670 or 129,600 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions.

32)[line 31] LO HAYU MEDASHNIN OSO- they would not remove its ashes