LULAV ON SHABBOS
Question: Why is Lulav in the Mikdash not waved also on Shabbos Chol ha'Moed (what Melachah are we protecting)?
Answer (Rabah): It is prohibited lest he carry the Lulav out to receive instruction in its use.
The same Gezeirah holds by Shofar and Megilah.
A person might take them out for instruction.
Question: Then Lulav should be prohibited on the first day, as well, lest he carry it out!?
Answer: There is no concern since Rabanan instituted, for safety, that the Lulavim should be kept home (which will remind people not to carry them out).
Question: But what about before the Takanah?
Answer: The first day was not subject to a Gezeirah since it is Chashuv (because it applies everywhere unlike the other days when the Lulav is d'Oraisa only in the Mikdash).
Question: Then there should not be Gezeirah on the first day nowadays, either (it is Chashuv)!?
Answer: We are not certain which is the first day.
Question: Then let those in Eretz Yisrael wave the Lulav on the first day which falls on Shabbos!?
Answer: Indeed, they do (but see 44a for the Maskanah).
This is supported by resolving our Mishnah (where they brought their Lulavim to the Mikdash before Shabbos) and the Beraisa (where they brought them to the Beis ha'Kneses).
One must speak when the Mikdash was standing, and one after the Churban!
LULAV B'GEVULIN ON THE FIRST DAY
Question: Whence the obligation to take the Lulav on the first day even outside of the Mikdash?
Answer: The Beraisa derives it as one of the Derashos from the Pasuk u'Lekachtem Lachem...
Question: Why do we need a Derashah to permit Lulav on Shabbos (what Melachah is there)?
Answer: We need it to permit Machshirei Lulav (in accordance with R. Eliezer who permits cutting, etc., in preparation for the Mitzvah).
Question: What is R. Eliezer's rationale?
Answer: The extra word BaYom in our Pasuk.
Question: How will Rabanan (who disagree with the permission taught by R. Eliezer) interpret BaYom?
Answer: It restricts Lulav to daytime.
Question: Whence will R. Eliezer learn that limit?
Answer: It is implied by the word Yamim at the end of the Pasuk.
Question: How will Rabanan interpret that Yamim?
Answer: To the contrary, that Yamim would lead us (by linking it to Sukah) to apply Lulav by day and night.
Question: Maybe Sukah is only by day?
Answer: The Beraisa asserts that it is day and night.
Question: Maybe Yamim refers only to daytime (by linking Sukah to Yamim by Lulav)?
Answer: Yamim links Sukah to the seven days of Miluim (which were day and night).
Question: Why link Sukah to Miluim, link it rather to Lulav!?
Answer: It is more logical to link it to another Mitzvah which is all day long (unlike Lulav which is only once a day).
Question: Perhaps it is more reasonable to link it to another Mitzvah which is permanent (Lulav, unlike the one-time Miluim)?
Answer: The word Teshvu links it definitively to Miluim.
THE ARAVAH OVERRIDES SHABBOS ON THE SEVENTH DAY
Question: Why should the Aravah override Shabbos (and not be subject to the Gezeirah applied to Lulav)?
Answer (R. Yochanan): The Gezeirah was not applied to Aravah to publicize its Torah origins.
Question: Then the same should hold by the Lulav!?
Answer: Lulav is subject to the Gezeirah (taught by Rabah, lest one carry it out for instruction).
Question: The same should hold for the Aravah!?
Answer: The Aravah is brought to the Mikdash by agents of Beis Din and used by the Kohanim, for whom we do not need to apply Gezeiros (unlike Lulav which is taken by all).
Question: Then the Aravah should override Shabbos whenever it falls, not only on the seventh day!?
Answer: It would then overshadow Lulav.
Question: Then let it override Shabbos on the first day (not the last) just like Lulav?
Answer: The Torah origins would not be publicized thereby (people would attribute the bringing of the Aravah to the permission associated with Lulav).
Question: The Aravah should override Shabbos on another day?
Answer: Once we removed it from the first day, we give it another day of distinction.
ARAVAH OVERRIDING SHABBOS NOWADAYS
Question: Let Aravah override nowadays on Shabbos, as well (to publicize its Torah origins)!?
Answer: We are not certain which is the first day.
Question: What of those in Eretz Yisrael?
Answer (b. Hedya): The seventh day of Sukos may never fall on Shabbos.
Answer (Ravin and his entourage): It happens, and it does not override Shabbos.
Question: Then again, why not?
Answer (R. Yosef): The Mitzvah of Aravah is to lean it against the Mizbe'ach, which cannot be done nowadays.
Question (Abaye): But our Mishnah groups Lulav and Aravah together, presumably, because they are both waved!?
Answer (R. Yosef): That grouping is not compelling.
Question (Abaye): The Mishnah later reports that they walked around the Mizbe'ach once each day, and seven times on the last day, presumably with the Aravah!?
Answer (R. Yosef): No, it is with the Lulav, while the Aravah is leaning against the Mizbe'ach.
Question: But R. Nachman (citing Rabah b. Avuha) taught that they went around with the Aravah!?
Answer (R. Yosef): Indeed he holds that, but I hold that they went around with the Lulav.
This Machlokes is between R. Elazar (with the Lulav) and R. Shmuel b. Nasan citing R. Chaninah (with the Aravah).
R. Nachman citing Rabah b. Avuha agrees with Aravah.
Rava reported to R. Yitzchak b. Rabah bar bar Chanah that his father held it was with the Lulav.
Question: But the implication of the reported incident (where the Baisusim buried the Aravos) is that they waved the Aravah (not only leaned it against the Mizbe'ach)!?
Answer: Indeed, this refutes R. Yosef.
Question: Then the Netilah should override Shabbos!?
Answer: Since those outside of Eretz Yisrael do not override Shabbos (because of the doubt regarding the date), those in Eretz Yisrael refrain, as well.