[3a - 47 lines; 3b - 37 lines]

1)[line 1]אויראAVIRA- ventilation

2)[line 4]העשויה קיטוניות קיטוניותHA'ASUYAH KITONIYOS KITONIYOS- that is divided into many small chambers

3)[line 7]סוכה מעליאSUKAH MA'ALYA- the large main area of the Sukah

4)[line 12]הלכהHALACHAH- the Halachah [regarding the minimum size required for a kosher Sukah]

5)[line 14]כב"ש?K'BEIS SHAMAI?- like Beis Shamai? As the Gemara goes on to explain, the Mishnah (28a) records that Beis Hillel allows a Sukah to be six by six Tefachim, which is enough to contain one's head and body without a table.

6)[line 19]אפומא דמטללתאA'PUMA D'METALALTA- at the entrance of a Sukah [which opens into a house]

7a)[line 24]אם איתאIM ISA- and if it was true [that their argument revolved around the minimum size required for a kosher Sukah]

b)[line 24]מחזקת ואינה מחזקת מיבעי ליה!MACHZEKES V'EINA MACHZEKES MIBA'I LEI!- the Mishnah should discuss a Sukah that can or cannot contain [a person's head, most of his body, and table, as opposed to the location of said items within a (presumably larger) Sukah]

8)[line 44]מעקהMA'AKEH

(a)One who builds or acquires a house with a flat roof is required to build a fence (Ma'akeh) around the roof so that no one fall off of it (Devarim 22:8).

(b)A house that is less than four by four Amos is exempt from this requirement.

9)[line 44]נגעיםNEGA'IM (NIG'EI BATIM)

(a)If a streak or spot that is a stark green or red color is found upon the stones of a house, it may be Tzara'as (a spiritual malady). A Kohen is called to determine the status of the marks; if they are found to indeed have the status of Tzara'as, the house is placed into quarantine for a week. Since any utensil or clothing that is in the house when it is pronounced Tamei with Nega'im become Tamei as well, they are all removed before the Kohen checks the house.

(b)The Kohen returns after seven days to review the markings. If the Tzara'as has spread, one must remove the stones (Choletz) that have the Tzara'as, scrape off the surrounding plaster (Tach), insert new stones, and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then placed into quarantine for a second week. Should the Tzara'as return to the house during that week, then the owner is required to dismantle his house (Notetz). The stones from the house must be removed to a place outside of the city; they remain Asur b'Hana'ah forever (Vayikra 14:45).

(c)If, on the other hand, the Tzara'as remained unchanged after the first week, then the Kohen leaves the house in quarantine for an additional week. If after the second week the Tzara'as has spread - or even if it has remained as is - then one must remove the stones (Choletz) that have the Tzara'as, scrape off the surrounding plaster (Tach), insert new stones, and re-plaster the entire house. The house is then placed into quarantine for an additional week (Vayikra 14:40). Should the Tzara'as return to the house during that week, then the procedure for dismantling the house described above must be followed.

(d)If the Kohen finds during one of his inspections that the Tzara'as has disappeared or diminished in intensity such that it is no longer a Nega, then the spot alone is scraped away and the house is declared Tahor (RAMBAM Hilchos Tum'as Tzara'as 15:2).

(e)On the day that the house is declared by the Kohen to be free of Nega'im, its owner procures two kosher birds (Tziporei Metzora), a piece of cedar, some crimson wool and a hyssop branch. One of the birds is slaughtered over fresh spring water in a clay bowl. A Kohen dips the other bird, along with the other articles, into the spring water that is mixed with the blood and sprinkles it seven times toward the lintel on the house. The living bird is sent away towards the fields. Both birds are Asur b'Hana'ah, but the Isur no longer applies to the living bird once it is sent off to the fields. This completes the purification of the house (Vayikra 14:49-53).

(f)A house that is less than four by four Amos cannot receive the Halachic status of a Beis ha'Menuga.

10)[line 45]אינו נחלט בבתי ערי חומהEINO NECHLAT B'BATEI AREI CHOMAH (BATEI AREI CHOMAH)

(a)Houses located in a city that had been walled at the time of Yehoshua's conquest of Eretz Yisrael are termed Batei Arei Chomah. If one sells such a house, he has the right to purchase it back within one year of selling it. If he does not redeem it during that time, then it is "Chalut" to (becomes the permanent property of) the purchaser (Vayikra 25:29-30; see Charts to Erchin #4, sections 4a and 4b.)

(b)This Halachah does not apply to a house that is less than four by four Amos; such a house is treated as a field, which is not bought or sold any differently than any other object in a walled city.

11)[line 45]אין חוזרין עליו מעורכי המלחמהEIN CHOZRIN ALAV ME'ORCHEI HA'MILCHAMAH (MILCHEMES RESHUS)

(a)A Milchemes Reshus is the term used to refer to a war begun by the Jewish people of their own volition. One example of such a war was that waged by David ha'Melech against Aram Tzova (Syria) in order to annex that territory to Eretz Yisrael. A king may not mobilize his troops for a Milchemes Reshus without the approval of the Beis Din ha'Gadol (court of seventy-one judges; Sanhedrin 20b).

(b)A Kohen is appointed at the onset of war to motivate and encourage the soldiers. This Kohen is anointed with the Shemen ha'Mishchah (see Background to Shekalim 16:6), and he is referred to as the Kohen Meshu'ach Milchamah (Sotah 42a; see Background to Sotah 42:14). Shotrim (officers) are appointed to lead the troops in battle. All soldiers must be at least twenty years of age. In addition, the soldiers must meet certain requirements in order to fulfill the injunction of "v'Hayah Machanecha Kadosh" - "and your [war] camp shall be holy" (Devarim 23:15, RAMBAM Hilchos Melachim 6:14-15).

(c)Before the soldiers leave Eretz Yisrael for the battlefront, the Kohen Meshu'ach Milchamah reads the portion of the Torah (Devarim 20:5-7) which details those who are exempt from the battle. These are: 1. one who built a house but has not yet moved into it; 2. one who planted a vineyard but has not yet redeemed its fourth-year fruits (Orlah; see Background to Pesachim 75:4); and 3. one who betrothed a woman but has not yet married her. A Shoter then reads the next verse (ibid. 20:8), which states that all who are afraid of the battle should return to their homes, lest their attitude rub off on the remaining soldiers.

(d)These individuals, although they are exempt from fighting in the war, must still perform civic duties such as supplying food and water to the soldiers and fixing the roads (RAMBAM ibid. 7:9). However, one who moves into a new house, redeems the grapes of his vineyard in the fourth year, or marries is exempt from even these duties for one full year (Devarim 24:5; see RASHI there and RAMBAM ibid. 7:10-11).

(e)One who has built a house that is less than four by four Amos is not exempt from fighting in a Milchemes Reshus.

12)[line 46]אין מערבין בוEIN ME'ARVIN BO (ERUVEI CHATZEIROS)

(a)According to Torah law, in a courtyard (Chatzer) containing different houses owned by different people, each homeowner may transfer objects from his own house into the common courtyard and into another's house on Shabbos. Although each house is a separately owned Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) and the Chatzer is a jointly owned Reshus ha'Yachid, it is permissible to move objects from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another.

(b)King Shlomo decreed that transferring objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid owned by one party to that owned by another is forbidden, unless an "Eruv Chatzeros" (lit. a mixing of the courtyard, Rambam Hil. Eruvin 1:6, or fraternization of the courtyard, Eruvin 49a) is created on Friday, before Shabbos begins. (Shabbos 14b, Eruvin 21b). (The equivalent of an Eruv Chatzeros for an alley or a city is called a "Shituf Mevo'os".) This is accomplished by all of the neighbors collectively setting aside a loaf of bread in a common container in one of the houses of the courtyard (or, in the case of Shituf, in one of the courtyards of the alleyway). This demonstrates that all of the neighbors have an equal share in all of the Reshuyos ha'Yachid, just as they each have an equal share in the bread. Through this act, their respective houses can be considered as one Reshus (RAMBAM ibid. 1:4-9).

(c)A house that is less than four by four Amos does not prevent those living in the Chatzer that it opens to from carrying on Shabbos if it has not joined in the Eruv.

13)[last line]אין משתתפין בוEIN MISHTATFIN BO (SHITUFEI MEVO'OS)- [if this house is the only one in a Chatzer,] it need not join in a Shituf Mevo'os (see previous entry)

14)[last line]אין מניחין בו עירובEIN MANICHIN BO ERUV- an Eruv [Chatzeros] may not be placed in it

3b----------------------------------------3b

15)[line 1]אין עושין אותו עיבור בין שתי עיירותEIN OSIN OSO IBUR BEIN SHTEI AYAROS (TECHUM SHABBOS)

(a)One may walk for up to two thousand Amos (approximately 960 meters [3147 feet] or 1,152 meters [3774 feet], depending upon the differing Halachic opinions) from the outskirts of his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos or Yom Tov.

(b)As long as a dwelling is located within seventy Amos and four Tefachim of a city, it is considered part of that city, and the 2000 Amos of Techum Shabbos are measured from there. By this same measure, if a dwellings is located within seventy Amos and four Tefachim of each of two cities, it joins the two. They are Halachically considered one large city, and one who is in either one at the beginning of Shabbos may walk until 2000 Amos beyond the perimeter of the two cities combined.

(c)A house less than four by four Amos cannot combined two cities, even if it is placed within seventy Amos and four Tefachim of each one.

16)[line 1]אין האחין והשותפין חולקין בוEIN HA'ACHIN VEHA'SHUTFIN CHOLKIN BO- (The Gemara at this point understands this to mean that) neither of two brothers [who inherited such a house] or partners [in such a house] may force the other one to split it [since there is not enough for each to walk away with a significant portion]

17)[line 17]הוינן בהHAVINAN BAH- and they delved into it

18a)[line 18]בית שערBEIS SHA'AR- a gatehouse

b)[line 18]אכסדרהACHSADRAH- a covered porch open on at least one side

c)[line 18]מרפסתMIRPESES- (O.F. aledoir) a common balcony from which the residents of a second story descend by way of a ladder into a courtyard, and from there to a Reshus ha'Rabim

19)[line 19]אינו אוסרEINO OSER- does not prevent [those living in the Chatzer that it is part of from carrying on Shabbos if it has not joined in the Eruv]

20)[line 23]בורגניןBURGANIN- guard huts in which individual watchmen may sleep in for one night while guarding a field. Such huts extend the boundaries of a city if they are within seventy Amos and four Tefachim of it.

21)[line 24]חזו למילתייהוCHAZU L'MILSAIHU- are fit for their intended (temporary) use

22)[line 30]חצר לפי פתחיה מתחלקתCHATZER LEFI PESACHEHA MISCHALEKES- [if those who own one or more house opening into] a [joint] courtyard [wish to divide the courtyard amongst themselves, it] is divided according to the number of doorways [and not the number of owners]

23)[line 31]נותן לכל פתח ופתח ארבע אמותNOSEN L'KOL PESACH U'PESACH ARBA AMOS- each homeowner receives [a swath of land as wide as his doorway extending] four Amos [into the courtyard for unloading purposes]

24a)[line 24]דלמהוי קאיDEL'MEHEVEI KAI- that is going to remain

b)[line 25]דלמיסתר קאיDEL'MISTAR KAI- that is going to be torn down

25a)[last line]כריםKARIM- mattresses

b)[last line]כסתותKESASOS- pillows

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