Mishnah 1
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1)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses the Mashu'ach Milchamah (the Kohen Gadol for war [See Tos. Yom-Tov]). What does the Torah (in Parshas Shoftim) instruct him to announce the soldiers before they reach the battlefront?

(b)What does the Tana now learn from the Gezeirah-Shavah "Vediber el ha'Am" and "Moshe Yedaber" (in Yisro, in connection with Matan Torah)?

(c)The Mashu'ach Milchamah chided the soldiers. His opening words were "Sh'ma Yisrael" What did he say next?

(d)What do Yehudah and Shimon, Shimon and Binyamin, have to do with his speech?

1)

(a)The Mishnah now discusses the Mashu'ach Milchamah (the Kohen Gadol for war [See Tos. Yom-Tov]). Before the soldiers reach the battlefront, the Torah (in Parshas Shoftim) instructs him to announce to the soldiers - "And it shall be when you approach the battlefront, the Kohen shall draw near, and speak to the people (Vediber el ha'Am)".

(b)The Tana now learns from the Gezeirah-Shavah "Vediber el ha'Am" and "Moshe Yedaber" (in Yisro, in connection with Matan Torah) that - he is obligated to speak in Lashon ha'Kodesh (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)The Mashu'ach Milchamah chided the soldiers. After the words "Sh'ma Yisrael" - he warned them that they were engaged in a war against their mortal enemies, not a civil war ...

(d)... such as Yehudah against Shimon or Shimon against Binyamin (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

2)

(a)What does the Pasuk in Divrei ha'Yamim write about the ten tribes, after they defeated Yehudah in battle?

(b)What contrast does the Tana draw between a civil war and a war against Yisrael's enemies?

(c)He then warned them not to be faint-hearted, not to be afraid, not to panic and not to be broken before the enemy. If ...

1. ... 'faint-hearted' refers to the neighing of the enemies' horses and their flashing swords, what does 'afraid' refer to?

2. ... 'panic' refers to the sound of the enemies' trumpets, what does 'broken' refer to?

(d)Why should they not be afraid?

2)

(a)The Pasuk in Divrei ha'Yamim describes how, after defeating Yehudah in battle - the ten tribes clothed the captives and gave them shoes, provided them with food and drink and accompanied them first to to Yericho and then returned them to their own capitol, Shomron.

(b)The Tana points out that - as opposed to previous scenario, if a Jewish soldier falls into the hands of the enemy, they will have no mercy on him. In the same way, he explained, they should have no mercy on a captive who falls into their hands.

(c)He then warned them not to be faint-hearted, not to be afraid, not to panic and not to be broken before the enemy. If ...

1. ... 'faint-hearted' refers to the neighing of the enemies' horses and their flashing swords, 'afraid' refers to - the clashing of their shields and the banging of their numerous bent clubs (used to fire stones at the enemy).

2. ... 'panic' refers to the sound of the enemies' trumpets, 'broken' refers to - the war-cries of the enemy soldiers.

(d)They should not be afraid - because Hash-m their G-d is accompanying them into battle.

3)

(a)If the enemy come with the victory-cry of human-beings, what does the army of Yisrael come with?

(b)To which P'lishti fighter did the Mashu'ach Milchamah refer?

(c)He also mentioned Amon (a more recent adversary). What did he say about them? Who was Shovach?

(d)What was he referring to when he concluded that Yisrael are different in that Hash-m goes with them into battle?

3)

(a)'The enemy come with the victory-cry of human-beings, whereas the army of Yisrael comes - with the victory-cry of Hash-m!'

(b)The Mashu'ach Milchamah referred to the P'lishtim's - Goli'ath ...

(c)... and to Shovach, the strong man of Amon (a more recent adversary - as examples of the previous statement).

(d)When he concluded that Yisrael are different in that Hash-m goes with them into battle he was referring to - the fact that the above-mentioned heroes fell in battle, not so Yisrael, whose 'hero' is Hash-m Himself.

Mishnah 2
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4)

(a)Who then takes over from the Mashu'ach Milchamah?

(b)Which is the first of the three groups that they initially send home from the battlefront?

(c)What if he built, not a house, but a store-room for hay, a stable, a wood-store or a store for wine and oil?

(d)And what if he did not actually build any of the above, but purchased, inherited or received them as a gift?

(e)Why is that?

4)

(a)The officers - then take over from the Mashu'ach Milchamah (See last Tos Yom-Tov in the Mishnah & the first Tos. Yom-Tov in Mishnah 5).

(b)The first of the three groups that they initially send home from the battlefront is - anybody who built a house and did not yet consecrate it (See Tiferes Yisrael) ...

(c)... and this applies even if he built, not a house, but a store-room for hay, a stable, a wood-store or a store for wine and oil ...

(d)... and the same will apply - even he did not actually build any of the above, but purchased, inherited or received them as a gift (See Tos. Yom-Tov) ...

(e)... because as far as he is concerned, the house is new.

5)

(a)The second group to be sent home incorporates anyone who has planted a vineyard and not yet redeemed it. What does 'not redeemed it' mean?

(b)How many vines make-up a vineyard?

(c)What will be the Din if he planted, not a vineyard, but other fruit-trees?

(d)What if he planted five different fruit-trees?

(e)In similar vein to someone who built a house, the current Halachah incorporates someone who purchased a vineyard, inherited it or received it as a gift (See Tos. Yom-Tov). What if he transplants branches of growing vines or grafts them?

5)

(a)The second group to be sent home incorporates anyone who has planted a vineyard and not yet redeemed it - with reference to the fruit of the fourth year, which must be redeemed before one is permitted to eat it.

(b)Five vines - make-up a vineyard.

(c)The same Din will apply - if he planted, not a vineyard, but other fruit-trees ...

(d)... even if he planted five different species.

(e)In similar vein to someone who built a house, the current Halachah incorporates someone who purchased a vineyard, inherited it or received it as a gift - and extends to where he transplants branches of growing vines or grafts them.

6)

(a)What does the third group sent home from the front comprise?

(b)What if they are betrothed to a widow?

(c)The current Din even extends to a Shomeres Yavam (who is waiting for him to perform Yibum with her). What does the Mishnah say about a soldier who hears that his brother died in battle, leaving behind a childless widow?

(d)All of the above are not exempt from serving in the army. Which two duties do they remain obligated to perform?

6)

(a)The third group that is sent home from the front comprises - men who are betrothed and are due to get married ...

(b)... even if they are betrothed to widows (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

(c)The current Din even extends to a Shomeres Yavam (who is waiting for him to perform Yibum with her) - including a soldier who hears that his brother died in battle, leaving behind a childless widow. He too, is sent home.

(d)All of the above are not exempt from serving in the army. In fact - they remain obligated to supply the soldiers with water and food and to repair the roads.

Mishnah 3
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7)

(a)What does the Mishnah say about a soldier who has ...

1. ... built a guard's hut, a sun-porch or a balcony?

2. ... planted four fruit-trees or five non-fruit-bearing trees?

3. ... betrothed his divorcee?

(b)What is the reason for the latter ruling?

(c)And what does the Tana say about a Kohen Gadol who is betrothed to a widow, a Kohen Hedyot ... to a divorcee or a Chalutzah, a Yisrael ... to a Mamzeres and a Nesinah and a Mamzer or a Nasin ... to a bas Yisrael or a Yisrael?

(d)What is a Nasin?

(e)How do we learn all of these from the Pasuk "asher Eiras Ishah ve'Lo Lekachah"?

7)

(a)The Mishnah rules that a soldier who has ...

1. ... built a guard's hut, a sun-porch or a balcony, who ...

2. ... planted four fruit-trees or five non-fruit-bearing trees or who ...

3. ... betrothed his divorcee - is not sent home from the front.

(b)The reason for the latter ruling is - since the Torah specifically writes "a new wife", and she is not new.

(c)The Tana includes in the current list - a Kohen Gadol who is betrothed to a widow, a Kohen Hedyot ... to a divorcee or a Chalutzah, a Yisrael ... to a Mamzeres and a Nesinah and a Mamzer or a Nasin ... to a bas Yisrael or a Yisrael.

(d)A 'Nasin' is - a member of the Giv'oni tribe, who tricked Yehoshua (who punished them by making them wood-choppers and water-drawers) and whom David ha'Melech subsequently disqualified from marrying into K'lal Yisrael.

(e)We learn all of these from the Pasuk "asher Eiras Ishah ve'Lo Lekachah") - which implies that the soldier could have married but didn't (whereas all the above are forbidden to marry [See Tos. Yom-Tov]).

8)

(a)On what grounds does ...

1. ... Rebbi Yehudah include a soldier who demolished his house and re-built it ...

2. ... Rebbi Eliezer ... a soldier who built a brick house in the Sharon - in the list of soldiers who are not sent back from the battlefront?

(b)How frequently was it necessary to rebuild a brick house in the Sharon?

8)

(a)Rebbi ...

1. ... Yehudah includes a soldier who demolished his house and re-built it in the list of soldiers who are not sent back from the battlefront - because the Torah specifically writes "a new house".

2. ... Eliezer includes a soldier who built a brick house in the Sharon - because, due to the poor quality of the soil, it is a structure that will not remain standing for long.

(b)In fact, it needs to be demolished and rebuilt - twice every seven years.

Mishnah 4
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9)

(a)What does the Tana now say about a soldier who built a house and consecrated it, who planted a vineyard and redeemed it and who married his betrothed or who performed Yibum with his Yevamah?

(b)And he learns it from the Pasuk in Ki Sitzei "Naki Yih'yeh le'Veiso ...". He learns the Din of house from the word "le'Veiso". What does he learn from the superfluous word/s ...

1. ... "Yih'yeh"?

2. ... "ve'Simach es Ishto"?

3. ... "asher Lakach"?

(c)To what extent are they Patur?

9)

(a)The Tana now rules that a soldier who built a house and consecrated it, who planted a vineyard and redeemed it and who married his betrothed or who performed Yibum with his Yevamah - are not conscripted in the first place.

(b)And he learns it from the Pasuk in Ki Sitzei "Naki Yih'yeh le'Veiso ...". He learns the case of a house from the word "le'Veiso". From the superfluous word/s ...

1. ... "Yih'yeh" - he includes that of a vineyard and from ...

2. ... "ve'Simach es Ishto" - that of a wife.

3. ... "asher Lakach" - he learns a Yavam who 'took' his Yevamah ...

(c)... all of whom are exempt from all army duties (See Tiferes Yisrael).

Mishnah 5
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10)

(a)An announcement is then made concerning all the soldiers who are afraid and the soft-hearted. What do they say about them?

(b)Who makes this announcement?

(c)Rebbi Akiva interprets the Pasuk literally, with reference to soldiers who are terrified when standing in battle-formation, face to face with the enemy (Tiferes Yisrael). What else are they afraid of?

10)

(a)An announcement is then made - ordering all soldiers who are afraid and the soft-hearted to leave the front and return home ("Mi ha'Ish ha'Yarei ve'Rach ha'Leivav ... ").

(b)This announcement is made - by the officers exclusively.

(c)Rebbi Akiva interprets the Pasuk literally, with reference to soldiers who are terrified when standing in battle-formation, face to face with the enemy (Tiferes Yisrael) - and who are afraid of drawn swords.

11)

(a)How does Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili interpret the Pasuk ("Mi ha'Ish ha'Yarei ve'Rach ha'Leivav ... ")?

(b)How does he correlate this exemption with the exemption of soldiers who are sent home in connection with their houses, fields and betrothed?

(c)Rebbi Yossi confines the current exemption to cases such as Almanah le'Kohen Gadol, G'rushah va'Chalutzah le'Kohen Hedyot, Mamzeres u'Nesinah le'Yisrael and bas Yisrael le'Mamzer u'le'Nasin. What is the basis of the Machlokes between him and Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili?

11)

(a)Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili interprets the Pasuk ("Mi ha'Ish ha'Yarei ve'Rach ha'Leivav ... ") - with reference to soldiers who are afraid of the sins that they are guilty of).

(b)He even explains the exemption of the soldiers who are sent home in connection with their houses, fields and betrothed - as a cover-up for the current exemption.

(c)Rebbi Yossi confines the current exemption to cases such as Almanah le'Kohen Gadol, G'rushah va'Chalutzah le'Kohen Hedyot, Mamzeres u'Nesinah le'Yisrael and bas Yisrael le'Mamzer u'le'Nasin - which are transgressions of Torah Mitzvos; whereas according to Rebbi Yossi ha'Gelili - they must leave the front even for transgressing Mitzvos de'Rabbanan.

Mishnah 6
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12)

(a)The Pasuk states that when the officers finished speaking to the soldiers, the 'Sarei Tzeva'os took their position at the head of the troops. Who were the Sarei Tze'va'os?

(b)What function did the first row of 'Zakifin' serve?

(c)Where did they stand?

(d)How many rows of Zakifin were there?

12)

(a)The Pasuk states that when the officers finished speaking to the army, the 'Sarei Tzeva'os - the battle commanders (See Tos. Yom-Tov) took their position at the head of the troops.

(b)The first row of 'Zakifin' - whose job it was to assist any soldier who stumbled in battle to arise and to encourage him to continue fighting ...

(c)... stood behind the soldiers.

(d)There were - two rows of Zakifin (See also Tos. Yom-Tov DH 'va'Acherim ... ').

13)

(a)What was the function of the second row of Zakifin?

(b)How did they achieve this?

(c)Why (based on which principle) was it necessary to be so tough with the soldiers?

(d)What do we learn from the Pasuk in Shmuel "Nas Yisrael Mipnei P'lishtim ve'Gam Mageifah Gedolah Haysah ba'Am" and from the Pasuk there "Vayanusu Anshei Yisrael Mipnei P'lishtim Vayiplu Chalalim"?

13)

(a)The function of the second row of Zakifin was - to prevent any soldier from fleeing the battlefront, by force if necessary.

(b)They achieved this - by using metal axes and breaking his legs if need be.

(c)It was necessary to be so tough with the soldiers - due to the principle 'Techilas Nisah Nefilah!' (fleeing is the prelude to defeat)!

(d)And we learn this - from the Pasuk in Shmuel "Nas Yisrael Mipnei P'lishtim ve'Gam Mageifah Gedolah Haysah ba'Am" and from the Pasuk there "Vayanusu Anshei Yisrael Mipnei P'lishtim Vayiplu Chalalim" (See Tos. Yom-Tov).

14)

(a)The above Dinim pertain to a Milchemes ha'Reshus, but not to a Milchemes Mitzvah. What is a 'Milchemes Mitzvah'?

(b)What is the Din regarding conscription by a Milchemes Mitzvah?

(c)Rebbi Yehudah extends the Tana Kama's ruling to a Milchemes Chovah. What is 'a Milchemes Chovah'?

14)

(a)The above Dinim pertain to a Milchemes ha'Reshus, but not to a 'Milchemes Mitzvah' - which entails either fighting to prevent an army from attacking or fighting against Amalek ...

(b)... where the Tana requires - even 'a Chasan from his room' and 'a Kalah from her Chupah' to be conscripted.

(c)Rebbi Yehudah extends the Tana Kama's ruling to a Milchemes Chovah - a war in defense of Eretz Yisrael.

15)

(a)Under which category do the battles of David ha'Melech (when he captured Aram Naharayim and Aram Tzovah [Syria]) fall?

(b)Given their respective definitions of a defensive battle, what is the basis of the Machlokes between Rebbi Yehudah and the Tana Kama?

(c)What does each one hold?

(d)Like whom is the Halachah?

15)

(a)The battles of David ha'Melech (when he captured Aram Naharayim and Aram Tovah [Syria]) fall under the category of - Milchemes ha'Reshus.

(b)Given their respective definitions of a defensive battle, the basis of the Machlokes between Rebbi Yehudah and the Tana Kama is- whether a war that is waged in order to prevent an enemy from strengthening himself in order to attack us is considered obligatory.

(c)The Tana Kama holds that such a preventative war is Milchemes ha'Reshus whereas Rebbi Yehudah holds that it is Milchemes Mitzvah.

(d)The Halachah is - like the Tana Kama.

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