1)

(a)Why would one expect poor people to sell Revav? What is 'Revav'?

(b)What does Rebbi Ila'ah bar Yeverechyah ...

1. ... learn from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Shisah Hash-m Morah la'Hem"? What does "Morah" mean?

2. ... say would be the lot of Talmidei-Chachamim, were it not for Chavakuk's prayers?

3. ... learn from the Pasuk in Melachim (written in connection with Eliyahu and Elisha) "Vayehi Heimah Holchim Haloch v'Daber v'Hinei Rechev Esh ... "?

(c)What does Rebbi Ila'ah bar Yeverechyah learn from the Pasuk "Lanus Shamah Rotzei'ach Asher Yirtzach Es Re'eihu bi'V'li Da'as" (regarding two Talmidei-Chachamim who live in the same town)?

1)

(a)One would expect poor people to sell 'Revav' - (fatty and oily substances) because they are messy and disgusting, and only a person who has no financial alternative would get involved in it.

(b)Rebbi Ila'ah bar Yeverechyah ...

1. ... learns from the Pasuk "Shisah Hash-m Morah la'Hem" - that David prayed for Hash-m to give the poor of Yisrael riches to gain the respect of the Nochrim, sparing them the degradation of all becoming sellers of Revav.

2. ... says that were it not for Chavakuk's prayers - Talmidei-Chachamim would be so poor that they would sleep two to a Talis.

3. ... learns from the Pasuk in Melachim (written in connection with Eliyahu and Elisha) "Vayehi Heimah Holchim Haloch v'Dabeir v'Hinei Rechev Esh ... " - that two Talmidei-Chachamim who travel together on a journey and do not discuss Divrei Torah, deserve to be burned.

(c)Rebbi Ila'ah bar Yeverechyah learns from the Pasuk "Lanus Shamah Rotzei'ach Asher Yirtzach Es Re'eihu bi'V'li Da'as" - that if two Talmidei-Chachamim who live in the same town but do not communicate respectfully with each other, one of them will die, and the other will go into exile.

2)

(a)What does Rav Yehudah Brei d'Rav Chiya say about the Tefilos of a Talmid-Chacham who studies Torah in spite of his poverty?

(b)Rebbi Avahu adds that he is also satiated with the glory of the Shechinah. What does he mean (see Agados Maharsha)?

(c)What reward does Rav Acha bar Chanina add to that?

2)

(a)Rav Yehudah Brei d'Rav Chiya says - that the Tefilos of a Talmid-Chacham who studies Torah in spite of his poverty will be answered.

(b)Rebbi Avahu adds that he is also satiated with the glory of the Shechinah - which means that the secrets of Torah will be revealed to him (Agados Maharsha).

(c)Rav Acha bar Chanina adds - that the curtain (that divides between Hash-m and him) never closes.

3)

(a)The Pasuk writes in Ki Savo "ba'Boker Tomar Mi Yiten Erev, u'va'Erev Yomar Mi Yiten Boker". Why can "Boker" in the latter phrase not refer to the morning after?

(b)Then how does Rava explain it? What does he extrapolate from there?

(c)If that is so, the world ought to have been destroyed long ago. Which two things keep it going?

(d)What is the significance of 'Kedushah d'Sidra' and 'Amen Yehei Shemei Rabah' in this context?

3)

(a)The Pasuk writes in Ki Savo "ba'Boker Tomar Mi Yiten Erev, u'va'Erev Yomar Mi Yiten Boker". "Boker" in the latter phrase cannot refer to the morning after - because how can one know that the morning after will be any better than the night before.

(b)Rava therefore explains - that it refers to the previous morning, and he extrapolates from there that the Kelalos constantly go from bad to worse.

(c)In that case, the world would have been destroyed long ago - and it is the 'Kedushah d'Sidra (of 'u'Va l'Tziyon Go'El') and 'Amen, Yehei Sh'mei Rabah ... ' after the Shabbos Derashah (Kadish d'Rabanan) that keep it going.

(d)The significance of 'Kedushah d'Sidra' and 'Amen Yehei Sh'mei Rabah' lies in the fact - that the former contains words of Torah with their Targum that have been learned publicly, and the latter is said after Torah that has been learned in public, and both incorporate Kidush Hash-m (a Davar shebi'Kedushah that can only be performed with ten people). That combination of Torah that is learned publicly and the Kidush Hash-m, provides the impetus that keeps the world going.

4)

(a)Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar in our Mishnah connected the good smell of fruit to Taharah. What is in fact, the connection?

(b)How did Rav Huna react when Rabah his son ...

1. ... recognized the smell of the beautiful-smelling date that he had wrapped in his Sudar?

2. ... handed the date to his son Aba?

(c)How did Rav Yakov respond when Rav Acha bar Yakov his grandfather (who was also his foster father) asked him for a cup of water?

(d)What adage did they learn ...

1. ... from Rav Huna?

2. ... from Rav Yakov?

4)

(a)Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar in our Mishnah connected the good smell of fruit to the Taharah, which is measure for measure - because when Yisrael purified themselves, Hash-m purified their fruit of bad smells and tastes.

(b)When Rav Huna's son Rabah ...

1. ... recognized the smell of the beautiful-smelling date that he had wrapped in his Sudar - he remarked that he must be pure in order to have such a keen sense of smell, and gave him the date.

2. ... handed the date to his son Aba - he was upset, commenting that he should not have demonstrated that his love towards his son was greater than his love towards him (by taking the date from him and giving it to his son).

(c)When Rav Acha bar Yakov, Rav Yakov's grandfather (who was also his foster father) asked him for a cup of water - he responded by pointing out that even though he had brought him up, he was still not his father, and that he was therefore not obligated to honor him like a father (see Agados Maharsha).

(d)The adage they learned ...

1. ... from Rav Huna is - 'Rachmei d'Aba a'Bnei, Rachmei d'Bnei a'Bnei' (A man loves his son, but his son loves his grandson).

2. ... from Rav Yakov is - 'Rabi Rabi, bar Beratach Ana' (He may well have brought me up, but he is not my father).

5)

(a)Our Mishnah discusses various decrees that they issued during the period of Churban Bayis Sheni. When Vespasian attacked Yerushalayim, the Chachamim issued a decree forbidding Chasanim to wear a Chasan's crown and Eirus (which will be explained in the Sugya). Which two decrees did they add when Titus took over?

(b)According to the Tana Kama, during his final onslaught, they issued a decree forbidding a Kalah to be carried through the city on an Apiryon. What is an 'Apiryon'?

(c)What did the Rabanan say about that?

5)

(a)Our Mishnah discusses various decrees that they issued during the period of Churban Bayis Sheni. When Vespasian attacked Yerushalayim, the Chachamim issued a decree forbidding Chasanim to wear a Chasan's crown and Eirus (which will be explained in the Sugya). When Titus took over - they added the prohibition of a Kalah's crown and that of learning Greek philosophy (though from the Sugya later it appears that this decree was issued earlier - in the time of Hurkenus and Aristobulus).

(b)According to the Tana Kama, during the final onslaught of Titus, they issued a decree forbidding a Kalah to be carried through the city on an Apiryon - which was a sort of litter surrounded by golden cloaks and suchlike, on which they would transport her from her father's house to that of her Chasan.

(c)The Rabanan however - rescinded the decree.

6)

(a)Rebbi Meir was the last of the great parable-sayers, and ben Azai of the Masmidim (diligent Torah-scholars), who studied day and night. What died with ...

1. ... ben Zoma?

2. ... Rebbi Chanina ben Dosa?

(b)What does the Tana mean when he says that Kavod ha'Torah died ...

1. ... with Rebbi Akiva?

2. ... with Raban Gamliel ha'Zaken?

(c)Rebbi Yosi was the last of the Chasidim. Why was he called 'Rebbi Yosi Katnasa'?

(d)When Raban Yochanan ben Zakai died, the glory of Chochmah died too, because his wisdom spanned so many areas (see Agados Maharsha). What died with ...

1. ... Raban Gamliel ha'Zaken (besides Kavod ha'Torah)?

2. ... Rebbi Yishmael ben Fiabi (the Kohen Gadol)?

3. ... Rebbi?

6)

(a)Rebbi Meir was the last of the great parable-sayers, and ben Azai of the Masmidim, who studied day and night. When ...

1. ... ben Zoma died - the era of Darshanim came to an end.

2. ... Rebbi Chanina ben Dosa died - the power of performing miraculous deeds died with him.

(b)When the Tana says that Kavod ha'Torah died ...

1. ... with Rebbi Akiva - he is referring to the meticulous care he took to Darshen the whole Torah, every tip of every letter, and certainly every superfluous letter and word.

2. ... with Raban Gamliel ha'Zaken - he is referring to the fact that, until Raban Gamliel, everyone would study Torah standing; whereas after his death, people became physically weaker, and began to sit whilst they studied Torah.

(c)Rebbi Yosi was the last of the Chasidim. He was called 'Rebbi Yosi Katnasa' - because he was also the smallest of the Chasidim, whose level decreased with the passing of time.

(d)When Raban Yochanan ben Zakai died, the glory of Chochmah died too, because his wisdom spanned so many areas (see Agados Maharsha). When ...

1. ... Raban Gamliel ha'Zaken died (besides Kavod ha'Torah) - purity and the Midah of abstention died too.

2. ... Rebbi Yishmael ben Fiabi (the Kohen Gadol) died - the glory of Kehunah died with him (because he was wise and wealthy and many Kohanim would eat at his table).

3. ... Rebbi died - humility and the fear of sin died with him.

7)

(a)Rebbi Pinchas ben Ya'ir (or Rebbi Yehoshua) says in our Mishnah that after the Churban Beis ha'Mikdash, the Chaveirim (who were careful about Tum'ah) and the Meyuchasin were embarrassed and ashamed. Why was that?

(b)Men of good deeds lost their authority. Who took their place?

(c)Seeing as nobody cares about Yisrael or takes their part, on whom are we forced to rely?

(d)Rebbi Eliezer ha'Gadol observes that since that time, the Chachamim are on a par with the Sofrim (children's Rebbes), and the Sofrim, like Chazanim (Shamashim). Like whom did the Chazanim turn out to be?

7)

(a)Rebbi Pinchas ben Ya'ir (or Rebbi Yehoshua) says in our Mishnah that after the Churban Beis ha'Mikdash the Chaveirim (who were careful about Tum'ah) and the Meyuchasin were embarrassed and ashamed - because the insolent and the Mamzerim took control (and mocked their innocence - Agados Maharsha).

(b)Men of good deeds lost their authority - and bullies and Ba'alei Lashon ha'Ra took their place.

(c)Seeing as nobody cares about Yisrael or takes their part - we are forced to rely on (no-one but) Our Father in Heaven.

(d)Rebbi Eliezer ha'Gadol observes that since that time, the Chachamim are on a par with the Sofrim (children's Rebbes), the Sofrim, like Chazanim (Shamashim) - and the Chazanim, like Amei ha'Aretz.

49b----------------------------------------49b

8)

(a)The Amei ha'Aretz too, deteriorated, and nobody cared about them or takes their part ... . In the time leading up to the Mashi'ach, which Midah will be dominant?

(b)What is the meaning of 've'Yoker Ya'amir' (or Ye'aveis)?

(c)Why will wine be expensive in spite of the fact that there will be no shortage of grapes?

(d)Why will there be no rebuke at that time?

8)

(a)The Amei ha'Aretz too, are deteriorating, and nobody cares about them or takes their part ... . In the time leading up to the Mashi'ach - the Midah of Chutzpah (insolence) will be dominant.

(b)'ve'Yoker Ya'amir' (or Ye'aveis) - means that people will not honor each other, or that even the most honored among them will be dishonest.

(c)Wine will be expensive in spite of the fact that there will be no shortage of grapes - because everyone will organize parties.

(d)There will be no rebuke at that time - since everyone will be guilty of sinning. Consequently, whenever someone will attempt to rebuke his friend, he will retort that he (the rebuker) is no better.

9)

(a)What will happen to ...

1. ... the ruling power?

2. ... the meeting-places of the Chachamim?

(b)The Galil will be destroyed, the Gavlan will be desolate and the inhabitants of the border towns will travel from one town to the other in search of a haven, but will not find one. What will happen to ...

1. ... the wisdom of the Chachamim?

2. ... those who fear sin?

3. ... truth?

(c)The young will shame the old, and children will disrespect their parents and rebel against them. How will ...

1. ... the old treat the young?

2. ... the face of the generation look?

(d)A person's own family will be his enemies. If this is how the generation looks, to whom will one turn for help?

9)

(a)

1. The ruling power - will become heretical.

2. The meeting-places of the Chachamim - will become brothels.

(b)The Galil will be destroyed, the Gavlan will be desolate and the inhabitants of the border towns will travel from one town to the other in search of a haven, but will not find one.

1. The wisdom of the Chachamim - will become rejected.

2. Those who fear sin - will be despised.

3. Truth - will become obsolete.

(c)The young will shame the old, and children will disrespect their parents and rebel against them. The ...

1. ... old - will arise when a young person enters the room.

2. ... face of the generation will look - like that of a dog (see Tiferes Yisrael).

(d)A person's own family will be his enemies. If this is how the generation looks - there will be nobody to whom to turn for help but our Father in Heaven.

10)

(a)Rav restricts the prohibition of Chasanim wearing crowns to those made of rock-salt, engraved with sulfur, but permits garlands made of myrtle or roses. Levi forbids all kinds of crowns. What does Shmuel say?

(b)Rebbi Elazar describes 'Eirus' which the Rabanan forbade together with Chasanim's crowns, as a specific type of bell. Why did Rav Huna break the 'Tanboura' (a specific type of drum) which his son Rabah made for his son's wedding? What did he advise him to replace it with?

(c)They also banned a crown worn by brides. What ...

1. ... sort of crown were they referring to?

2. ... sort of head-gear did they permit a bride to wear?

(d)Included in the ban was Chupas Chasanim. What is a 'Chupas Chasanim'? What did they permit in its stead?

10)

(a)Rav restricts the prohibition of Chasanim wearing crowns to those made of rock-salt, engraved with sulfur, but permits crowns made of myrtle or roses (garlands). Levi forbids all kinds of crowns - and Shmuel adds garlands made of myrtle or roses, though he permits crowns made of reeds or sedge.

(b)Rebbi Elazar describes 'Eirus' which the Rabanan forbade together with Chasanim's crowns, as a specific type of bell. Rav Huna broke the 'Tanboura' (a specific type of drum) which his son Rabah made for his son's wedding - on the grounds that it resembled the bell forbidden by Chazal. He advised him to replace it with an instrument made out of the top of a barrel or a large box.

(c)They also banned a crown worn by brides.

1. This was a sort of crown fashioned in the shape of a tiara with a picture of Yerushalayim engraved on it.

2. They did however, permit a bride to wear a felt hat.

(d)Included in the ban was a Chupas Chasanim - an archway made of red cloth set with golden plates. They did however, permit a wooden arch, on which one was permitted to suspend anything, even golden strands.

11)

(a)Chazal forbade the study of the Greek dialect as spoken in the royal palace, due to an episode that took place during the civil war between Hurkenus and Aristobulus. How did those besieged in Yerushalayim (Aristobulus), manage to bring the Korban Tamid each day? From where did they obtain the two lambs?

(b)What did that old man who had studied Greek philosophy advise Hurkenus to do that changed the situation? Why did he do that?

(c)What happened next? Which two curses did Chazal subsequently issue?

(d)What is the significance of the fact that, that year, the Omer came form Gagos Tzerifim and the Shtei ha'Lechem from the valley of Ein Sochar? Where did they usually come from?

11)

(a)Chazal forbade the study of Greek philosophy due to an episode that took place during the civil was between Hurkenus and Aristobulus. Those besieged in Yerushalayim (Aristobulus), managed to bring the Korban Tamid each day - by letting down a basket of money to the attackers, for which they would receiving in exchange, the two required lambs.

(b)That old man who had studied Greek philosophy advised Hurkenus to - place a pig in the basket instead of the lambs, because, he claimed, as long as the inhabitants of the besieged city had the merit of sacrifices on their side, they would never be vanquished.

(c)When the pig, on its way up, dug its hoofs into the wall of Yerushalayim and the entire country shook. That is when Chazal issued a curse on anyone who rears pigs or who studies Greek philosophy.

(d)The significance of the fact that, that year, the Omer came form Gagos Tzerifim and the Shtei ha'Lechem from the valley of Ein Sochar is - that they usually brought them from close to Yerushalayim, for them to be brought to Hash-m fresh.

12)

(a)How do we reconcile the ban on the royal dialect of Greek and the statement of Rebbi in a Beraisa that in Eretz Yisrael one should speak either Lashon ha'Kodesh or Greek, but not Sursian (the Syriac language)?

(b)Based on a statement by Amar Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel, citing Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, out of a thousand members of the latter's family, how many studied Torah and how many, Greek philosophy?

(c)How many remained out of those thousand?

(d)How will we reconcile this with the Chachamim's ban on Greek philosophy?

(e)For the same reason, they permitted Avtulus ben Reuven to shave the front of his head and to leave the back. Why was this generally prohibited?

12)

(a)We reconcile the ban on Greek philosophy and the statement of Rebbi in a Beraisa that in Eretz Yisrael one should speak either Lashon ha'Kodesh or Greek, but not Sursian (the Syriac language) - by differentiating between Greek philosophy (which is forbidden) and speaking Greek (which is permitted).

(b)Based on a statement by Amar Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel, citing Raban Shimon ben Gamliel, out of a thousand members of the latter's family - five hundred studies Torah and five hundred, Greek philosophy ...

(c)... out of whom only he remained in Eretz Yisrael and his cousin (his father's brother's son) in Asya.

(d)This, despite the Chachamim's ban on Greek philosophy - because they permitted those who were close to the ruling power (and who could thusly influence them to nullify their evil decrees, and who could foil the sinister plots that they were constantly being hatched against Yisrael).

(e)For the same reason, they permitted Avtulus ben Reuven to shave the front of his head and to leave the back, which was generally forbidden - because it was the haircut that was the mark of idolaters.

13)

(a)What did the Tana of the Beraisa mean when he said that when Rebbi Eliezer died, the Sefer-Torah was hidden?

(b)What came to an end with the death of ...

1. ... Rebbi Yehoshua?

2. ... Rebbi Akiva?

3. ... Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah?

(c)What our Mishnah writes about Rebbi Yosi, the Beraisa writes about Aba Yosi ben Katonta. What ...

1. ... plague, alongside other Tzaros, came upon the world when Raban Shimon ben Gamliel died?

2. ... happened to the world when Rebbi died?

(d)We learned in our Mishnah that when Rebbi died, humility and the fear of sin came to an end. On what grounds did ...

1. ... Rav Yosef instruct the Beraisa expert to omit humility from the Mishnah?

2. ... Rav Nachman instruct the Beraisa expert to omit the fear of sin?

13)

(a)When the Tana of the Beraisa said that when Rebbi Eliezer died, the Sefer-Torah was hidden - he was referring to his expertise in Halachos (like we learned in Sanhedrin, where he spoke of the three thousand Halachos regarding the planting of cucumbers and three hundred regarding a strong Baheres (mark of Tzara'as).

(b)With the death of ...

1. ... Rebbi Yehoshua - counsel came to an end (because he was Yisrael's champion in his disputations against the heretics).

2. ... Rebbi Akiva - the arms of Torah came to an end (referring his depth of understanding, logic and power of reasoning, and his ability to explain all the nuances in the words and letters of the Torah).

3. ... Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah - the crown of wisdom, which is the connected with great wealth, came to an end.

(c)What our Mishnah writes about Rebbi Yosi, the Beraisa writes about Aba Yosi ben Katonta. When ...

1. ... Raban Shimon ben Gamliel died, alongside other Tzaros - the world suffered a plague of locusts.

2. ... Rebbi died - the world suffered an upsurge of Tzaros.

(d)We learned in our Mishnah that when Rebbi died, humility and the fear of sin came to an end. Rav ...

1. ... Yosef instructed the Beraisa expert to omit humility from the Mishnah - on the grounds that he was still alive and was exceedingly humble (some commentaries explain that 'Ana' [means not 'I' in this instance but] is the name of a Chacham).

2. ... Nachman instructed the Beraisa expert to omit the fear of sin - on the grounds that he (or Ana) was still alive, and his fear of sin was exceptional.

HADRAN ALACH 'EGLAH ARUFAH', U'SELIKA LAH MASECHES SOTAH

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