ACCEPTING COMMUNAL OFFERINGS FROM INDIVIDUALS
The Mishnah in Ta'anis (26a) teaches that there were certain families whose donated wood would be used for the Ma'arachah.
The Gemara reviews the history of these generous families who addressed the lack of wood in the Lishkah at the beginning of the Bayis Sheni.
They were granted, by the Nevi'im of that time, the privilege of having their wood used on the day of their offering even when the Lishkah is full of wood.
(R. Acha): That Mishnah must follow the opinion of R. Yosi in our Mishnah that an individual may volunteer as the watchman.
(R. Ila): That Mishnah may follow all opinions, since there is no argument regarding preparatory components of the offerings, only regarding the offerings themselves.
A Beraisa teaches that a woman may make a white Kesones for the Avodah, provided that she donates it entirely to the public.
(R. Acha): That Beraisa is R. Yosi (as in (b) above).
(R. Ila): It is all opinions (as in (c) above).
A Beraisa seems to indicate that the Mishnah of the donated wood does not exclusively follow R. Yosi.
The Beraisa teaches that (according to Chachamim) the festival of those donor families continued beyond the Churban.
R. Yosi maintains that it was only during the period when offerings were being brought.
The Chachamim (and not only R. Yosi) accept the principle of accepting communal offerings from individuals.
THE OMER IS LOCAL
The Beraisa teaches (Menachos 83b) that, unlike all other public and private Korbanos, the Omer must be brought only from Chadash and only from Eretz Yisrael.
This is the opinion of R. Yishmael, namely, that the Omer may not be brought from Chutz la'Aretz (even from Suria, which has some of Kedushas ha'Aretz).
We are taught that in a Beraisa that the Omer, Bikurim and Sh'tei ha'Lechem are brought exclusively from Eretz Yisrael, an indication of its superior Kedushah.
This, too, is the opinion of R. Yishmael.
R. Yishmael taught that the cutting of the Omer overrides Shabbos (and is consistent with his opinion that the Omer may not be brought from Suria, because if it could come from a distance it would surely have to be done before Shabbos).
In a related point, it is R. Yishmael who holds (in our Mishnah) that a watchman must guard the (otherwise prohibited) Sefichim in Eretz Yisrael in order not to bring the Omer from Chutz la'Aretz.
(R. Yusa): No, the permission to watch the Sefichim is the opinion of all, and it was done only as a backup in the event the grain could not be found in Chutz la'Aretz.
PLANTING OMER DURING SHEMITAH
Question: Would it be permitted to plant grain during Shemitah to cover in the even Sefichim could not be found?
Answer: It must be Asur since it would create a Kometz being offered where the Shirayim do not become permitted.
Question: But we are asking if the Omer would be like those five Korbanos which are offered but not eaten!
PAYING THE WATCHMEN
Question: What is the procedure for paying the watchmen?
Answer: There are 4 steps:
The funds are borrowed from a Shulchani.
The watchmen are paid in full before the Omer is brought.
Funds are then taken from the Lishkah and their Kedushah is Mechulal on the grains received from the watchmen.
Those funds are then given to the Shulchani.
Question: But that can't work (two approaches: 1. because since the grains are worth much less than the salaries of the watchmen; or, 2. since so much of the grains is discarded it is not appropriate to be Mechalel the Kodesh funds on them)!
Answer: This was already accounted for in the setting of the original price for the grain with the watchmen.
The stonecutters received their pay with the same steps (as in (b) above), with the same concern (as in (c) above) and the same response (as in (d) above).
HALACHAH 2: OTHER USES OF THE LISHKAH FUNDS
The funds of the Terumas ha'Lishkah were used also for:
The Parah Adumah.
The Sa'ir ha'Mishtaleach.
The thread for the Parah Adumah.
The Shirayim were used for:
Both bridges and the thread for the Sa'ir ha'Mishtaleach.
The water cistern in the Azarah.
The city walls and all communal needs.
(Aba Shaul): The bridge for the Parah Adumah was built by the private funds of the Kohanim Gedolim.
Any Shirayim funds still remaining after the above:
They were used to purchase wine and Soles.
These were sold to anyone needing these Korban ingredients.
(R. Yishmael): The proceeds went to Hekdesh.
(R. Akiva): One does not do business with Hekdesh, nor with alms for the poor.
Any funds remaining in the Kupos when the next Terumah must be taken were used to goldplate the floor and walls of the Kodshei Kodshim.
(R. Yishmael): The proceeds (from (d) above) were used to keep the Mizbe'ach occupied - Kayitz ha'Mizbeach - while the funds remaining from the Terumah are used for K'lei Shares.
(R. Akiva): The remaining funds from the Terumah are used for Kayitz ha'Mizbeach and the surplus Nesachim was used for K'lei Shares.
(R. Chananyah): The surplus Nesachim went to Kayitz ha'Mizbeach and the remaining Kupah funds went for K'lei Shares.
Both R. Akiva and R. Chananyah agree that there were no proceeds made from Hekdesh funds.
R. Yishmael taught that there were three threads:
The Sa'ir ha'Mishtaleach (weighing a Sela).
The Metzora (a half-Sela [Shekel]).
The Parah Adumah (two Sela'im).
R. Chunyah gave larger measures.
OTHER EMPLOYEES AND EXPENSES PAID BY THE TERUMAH
Various opinions are brought regarding those who received their salaries from the Terumas ha'Lishkah.
The scholars who taught the Kohanim the Avodah.
Those who checked the animals for blemishes.
The Magihim who checked the Sefer Torah in the Azarah.
The Dayanim for theft cases in Yerushalayim.
(Shmuel): The women who wove the Paroches.
(R. Chuna): They were paid from Bedek ha'Bayis.
Shmuel considers the Paroches is to be viewed as a K'li Shares while R. Chuna sees it as part of the building.
Other Kodshim expenses from the Terumah include the Ketores and all public Korbanos.
The surplus Nesachim paid for the inner (gold, portable) Mizbeach and all K'lei Shares.
Bedek ha'Bayis paid for fixed parts of the building (the Mizbeach ha'Olah, Heichal, Azaros).
Beyond the walls of the Bais ha'Mikdash, expenses were paid from the Shirayim.
Question: But we learned that there is Me'ilah by the walls of Yerushalyim?!
Answer: This is the opinion of R. Meir that there is Me'ilah by Shirayim.
Question: But R. Meir only taught his Din during that year!?
CRITICAL COMPONENTS OF THE BAIS HAMIKDASH
There is a dispute regarding which parts of the Bais ha'Mikdash must be in order for Avodah to take place:
(R. Meir): The Shulchan, Menorah, Mizbechos, Paroches.
(Chachamim): The Kiyor, its Ken, (or, the Karkov and the Keren).
Question: But we were taught different criterion (i.e. any article associated with the word "Nochach" or "Simah" etc.) for that which is Me'akev!?
Answer: The other lists are for that which is Me'akev in the Heichal, while the Karkov and Keren are the only ones Me'akev in the Azarah.