(a)Why is the recital of 'Al ha'Nisim' in Benching not obligatory?
(b)What did Rav Sheishes tell Rava's family, when Rava wanted to say 'Al ha'Nisim' before 'u'Venei' (where 'Ya'aleh ve'Yavo' is said)?
(c)Why does the Gemara not ask whether or not, 'Al ha'Nisim' is obligatory in Tefilah?
(a)The recital of 'Al ha'Nisim' in Benching is not obligatory - because it is only mi'de'Rabbanan.
(b)When Rava wanted to insert 'Al ha'Nisim' before 'u'Venei', Rav Sheshes told his family - that Birchas ha'Mazon is no different than Tefilah, where we say 'Al ha'Nisim' in 'Birchas ha'Hoda'ah'.
(c)The Gemara does not ask whether or not, 'Al ha'Nisim' is obligatory in Tefilah - because it is obvious that it is, since the main Takanah of Chanukah was 'Hallel ve'Hoda'ah', as we learnt above (which is the main objective of Tefilah. Birchas ha'Mazon is different, because its main objective is to thank Hash-m for the bread that one ate, and it is not obligatory to eat bread on Chanukah. Also, because 'Pirsumei Nisa' is more prominent in Tefilah, which takes place be'Tzibur, whereas one normally Benches privately - Tosfos DH 'Mahu'.)
(a)Given that 'Al ha'Nisim' is not obligatory, why might 'Ya'aleh ve'Yavo' on Rosh Chodesh be different?
(b)What does the Gemara conclude with regard to 'Ya'aleh ve'Yavo' on Rosh Chodesh?
(c)Which other special day will have the same Din as Rosh Chodesh in this regard?
(d)Why does one recite 'Ya'aleh ve'Yavo' specifically in the Berachah of 'Avodah' (Retzei)?
(a)'Ya'aleh ve'Yavo' on Rosh Chodesh may well be obligatory on Chanukah (even though 'Al ha'Nisim' is not) - because it is basically d'Oraysa.
(b)The Gemara concludes like Rav - that 'Ya'aleh ve'Yavo' on Rosh Chodesh is obligatory, because this concurs with the Beraisa of Rebbi Oshaya, which rules that, any day on which Musaf is said (even if it is not a Yom-Tov), 'Ya'aleh ve'Yavo' in Benching is obligatory.
(c)This category also incorporates - Chol ha'Mo'ed.
(d)We insert 'Ya'aleh ve'Yavo' in the Berachah of Avodah - in the form of a prayer, asking Hash-m to reinstate the Avodah, to enable us to sacrifice the appropriate Musaf offerings on that particular day.
(a)Why is no mention made of Sheini and Chamishi, Ta'aniyos and Ma'amados in Birchas ha'Mazon?
(b)Where does one mention them?
(c)What does 'Sheini va'Chamishi' mean in this context?
(d)Does one need to go back to 'Shema Koleinu' for 'Aneinu', if one omitted it, and did not yet conclude the Amidah?
(a)With the exception of Chanukah and Purim, which are days of thanksgiving, any special day on which Musaf is not said, is not mentioned at all in Birchas ha'Mazon (at night, when one eats), and that includes Sheini, Chamishi, Ta'aniyos and Ma'amados.
(b)One does however, mention them in Tefilah - in the Berachah of Shomei'a Tefilah.
(c)'Sheini va'Chamishi' in this context - refers to 'Sheini va'Chamishi ve'Sheini' - the special fast-days which they would initiate if rain failed to fall by a certain date (as is described in Maseches Ta'anis). These series of fasts always followed that sequence (i.e. Monday, Thursday and Monday).
(d)If one forgot 'Aneinu' - it is not necessary to go back to 'Shema Kolenu', even if he had not yet concluded the Amidah.
(a)What is the significance of the Ma'amados in this context?
(b)When does one say 'Aneinu' even when one is not fasting, and when does one not say it even if one is?
(c)Why do individuals not say 'Aneinu' nowadays (although the Shatz does - if there are ten or six fasters) until Minchah of the fast-day?
(a)Ma'amados were groups of Yisraelim (representing the whole of Yisrael vis-a-vis the Korban Tamid - as described in Ta'anis), who would gather in various centres around the country. Apart from a special Keri'as ha'Torah - they would also fast from Monday to Thursday.
(b)Originally, one would say 'Aneinu' - the night before the fast began (even though the fast was not due to begin until the morning). On the other hand - on the night following the fast, even someone who was still fasting would no longer say 'Aneinu'.
(c)Nowadays, we do not say 'Aneinu' until Minchah of the fast-day - because of the possiblity that due to illness, one might be forced to eat, and the 'be'Yom Tzom Ta'aniseinu' that he said in his Tefilah will turn out to be false.
(a)Why do some Amora'im hold not to insert 'Al ha'Nisim' in the Musaf of Shabbos of Rosh Chodesh Chanukah?
(b)Why is there no proof for their opinion, from Rav, who says that when Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, Rosh Chodesh is not mentioned in the Berachos of the Haftorah?
(c)How do we then support their opinion from Rav's statement 'ha'Maftir be'Minchah be'Navi be'Shabbos'? What does Rav say there?
(d)What is the significance of this 'Maftir'? Why do we not Lein it nowadays?
(a)Some Amora'im maintain that 'Al ha'Nisim' should not be said at Musaf (on the days when Musaf is said) - because Chanukah per se, is not a day on which Musaf is normally said.
(b)There is no proof for this from Rav, who holds that when Rosh Chodesh falls on Shabbos, no mention is made of Rosh Chodesh in the Berachos of the Haftorah - because there, the Haftorah is not read at all on Rosh Chodesh, whereas in our case, Tefilah as such, is said on Chanukah.
(c)We do however, support that opinion from 'ha'Maftir be'Minchah be'Navi be'Shabbos' - where Rav says that someone who read the Maftir at Minchah on Shabbos afternoon (as was customary in those days), would not mention Yom-Tov (when Yom-Tov fell on Shabbos), because there is no Haftorah on Yom-Tov at Minchah, in spite of the fact that the Haftorah is said on Yom-Tov at Shachris.
(d)They used to Lein ten Pesukim from the Navi at Minchah on Shabbos. The custom was discontinued however - when the Persians stopped it, and it was never resumed.
(a)The Halachah regarding the recital of 'Al ha'Nisim' in Musaf is like Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi (who speaks about Yom Kipur which falls on Shabbos). What does Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi say?
(b)How do we reconcile this with Rava, who says that when Yom-Tov falls on Shabbos, we do not mention Yom-Tov in the 'Berachah Achas Me'ein Sheva' ('Magen Avos'), since it is only because of Shabbos, and not Yom-Tov, that we say this abridged version of Chazaras ha'Shatz?
(c)Why did they not institute saying the 'Berachah Achas Me'ein Sheva' during the week?
(a)The Halachah regarding the recital of 'Al ha'Nisim' in Musaf is like Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi (who speaks about Yom Kipur which falls on Shabbos) - who says, that when Yom Kipur falls on Shabbos, one inserts Shabbos at Ne'ilah, even though Ne'ilah is not said as such on Shabbos - because it is a day on which four Tefilos are said. Similarly, we should say 'Al ha'Nisim' at Musaf, since it is a day on which 'Al ha'Nisim' is said in the other Tefilos.
(b)Rava says that when Yom-Tov falls on Shabbos, we do not mention Yom-Tov in the 'Berachah Achas Me'ein Sheva' ('Magen Avos'), since it is only because of Shabbos, and not Yom-Tov, that we say this abridged version of Chazaras ha'Shatz. This is no contradiction to what we just learned by Al ha'Nisim at Musaf - because there, in addition, we should not even say 'Magen Avos' on Shabbos either, and it is only to protect those who came late to Shul, and whose lives might be in danger (because of the demons), if they go home alone, that Chazal instituted it. Consequently, since this Chazaras ha'Shatz is not a major Tefilah, Yom-Tov is not mentioned in it.
(c)They did not institute saying the 'Berachah Achas Me'ein Sheva' during the week - because in those days, the Shuls were out in the fields (which explains the danger aspect mentioned here in our Sugya). Consequently, during the week, people would go home after work and Daven at home (so the Takanah of the 'Berachah Achas Me'ein Sheva' was unnecessary); and it was only on Shabbos that they would all congregate to Daven Ma'ariv in Shul.
(a)Nachum ha'Madi permits kindling the Shabbos lights with cooked Cheilev. In which point do the Chachamim, who say 'Echad Mevushal, ve'Echad she'Eino Mevushal, Ein Madlikin Bo', differ from the Tana Kama, who also forbids all Cheilev, whether it is cooked or not?
(a)Nachum ha'Madi permits kindling the Shabbos lights with cooked Cheilev.The Chachamim, who say 'Echad Mevushal, ve'Echad she'Eino Mevushal, Ein Madlikin Bo', differs from the Tana Kama, who also forbids all Cheilev, whether it is cooked or not - in the Din of Rav Berunah quoting Rav, who permits Cheilev into which one has added a drop of Kasher oil. One of them holds like Rav Berunah quoting Rav, the other does not.
(a)On what grounds does Rebbi Yishmael disqualify tar from being used for the Shabbos lights?
(b)The Chachamim are extremely lenient with regard to which oils one may use, whilst Rebbi Tarfon is extremely strict. What does each opinion hold?
(a)Rebbi Yishmael disqualifies tar from being used for the Shabbos lights - because it is not Kavod Shabbos (this will be explained later).
(b)The Chachamim - permit all oils except for those that the Tana in the previous Mishnah specifically forbade; whereas Rebbi Tarfon - forbids all oils except for olive oil.
(a)Why would we have thought that it is permitted to burn Kodshim on Yom-Tov, in spite of the La'av of not doing work on Yom-Tov?
(b)We learn the prohibition from a variety of sources: Chizkiyah learns it from the double expression of "ve'Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker, ve'ha'Nosar Mimenu Ad Boker" etc. (Bo); Abaye from "Olas Shabbos be'Shabato" (Pinchas), and Rava from "Hu Levado Ye'aseh Lachem" (Bo). How does ...
1. ... Chizkiyah learn it from the double expression of "ve'Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker, ve'ha'Nosar Mimenu Ad Boker" etc.?
2. ... Abaye learn it from "Olas Shabbos be'Shabato"?
3. ... Rava, from "Hu Levado Ye'aseh Lachem"?
(c)Rav Ashi learns the prohibition from "Shabason" (Bo). How does he learn it from there?
(a)We would have thought that it is permitted to burn Kodshim on Yom-Tov, in spite of the La'av of not doing work on Yom-Tov (if not for the various Limudim to the contrary, which will be clarified shortly) - because of the principle 'Asei Docheh Lo Sa'aseh', Here too, the Asei of "ba'Esh Tisrofu"(Bo) should override the La'av of "Kol Melachah Lo Ye'aseh Bahem" (Bo).
(b)We learn the prohibition from a variety of sources: Chizkiyah learns it from the double expression of "ve'Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker, ve'ha'Nosar Mimenu Ad Boker" etc. (Bo); Abaye from "Olas Shabbos be'Shabato" (Pinchas), and Rava from "Hu Levado Ye'aseh Lachem" (Bo).We learn from the Derashos as follows:
1. Chizkiyah learns it from the double expression of"Lo Sosiru Mimenu Ad Boker, ve'Ha'Nosar Mimenu Ad Boker, ba'Esh Tisrofu" - the extra "Ad Boker" teaches us that what is left over on the first morning of Yom-Tov, must be burned on the second day (Chol ha'Mo'ed), but not on Yom-Tov.
2. Abaye learns it from "Olas Shabbos be'Shabbato" - but not an Olas Chol (even a Kasher one, Kal va'Chomer one that has to be burned because it is Pasul) on Shabbos.
3. Rava, from "Hu Levado Ye'aseh Lachem" - '"Lachem", what is for you is permitted, but not what is for Hashem'.
(c)Rav Ashi learns the prohibition from "Shabason", which is an Asei. This now means that Yom-Tov is an Asei as well as a Lo Sa'aseh - and the Asei of burning Kodshim does not have the power to override an Asei and a Lo Sa'aseh.