HOW MUCH MAY WE CLEAR OUT ON SHABBOS?
Answer #2 (Shmuel): The Tana speaks like people - he says four or five, the same applies to more.
Question: What does it mean 'but one may not clear out a storehouse'?
Answer: One may not totally clear it out, lest one even out nooks in the floor.
Inference: One may begin to clear out a storehouse - this is like R. Shimon, who permits Muktzeh.
(Beraisa): One may not begin to clear out a storehouse, but one may make a path in order to get in and out.
Question: If one may not begin to clear it, how may one make a path?!
Answer: One may make a path with his legs when he enters and leaves (Muktzeh may not be moved normally, i.e. with the hands).
(Beraisa - R. Shimon): If one started to use a pile of grain before Shabbos, he may use it on Shabbos [to feed his animals]; if not, not.
R. Acha permits.
Objection: R. Shimon is the most lenient regarding Muktzeh!
Correction: Rather, the first Tana is R. Acha; R. Shimon permits.
(Beraisa): The Shi'ur of a pile of grain is 15 Sa'im.
Question (Rav Nechumi bar Zecharyah): What is the Shi'ur of a pile of grain?
Answer (Abaye): We learned that it is 15 Sa'im!
Question: [According to Rav Chisda] the Mishnah permits four or five boxes [of straw or grain] - must it be in at most four or five boxes, because it is best to minimize walking?
Or, is it best to minimize the load (so one may carry this quantity in many small Kelim)?
Answer (Beraisa #1): We may clear out four or five boxes of jugs of wine and oil;
(Beraisa #2): We may clear out 10 or 15.
Suggestion: Tana #1 holds that it is best to minimize walking. Tana #2 holds that it is best to minimize the load.
Rejection: No, all agree that it is best to minimize walking,
Beraisa #2 does not permit 10 or 15 boxes, rather, 10 or 15 jugs;
Beraisa #1 discusses large jugs, only one fits in each box; Beraisa #2 discusses small jugs, two fit in each box, or three, like jugs of Herpanya.
Question #1: [According to Rav Chisda] the Mishnah permits four or five boxes - is this even if there are many guests, or is it proportional to the amount of guests?
Question #2: If you will say that it is proportional to the amount of guests - does one person clear all of them, or does everyone clear for himself?
Answer (to Question #1): Rava said that Rebbi once went to a place and found that the Talmidim were too crowded - Rebbi went to a field full of stacks, Rebbi piled them all up [to make room];
Rav Yosef reported a similar episode with R. Chiya.
This shows that it is proportional to the amount of guests, but we did not resolve whether one person clears all of them, or if everyone clears for himself.
Suggestion: It also answers Question #2 - it says that Rebbi piled them all up!
Rejection: Surely, Rebbi did not do so himself (he was too dignified - the same applies to R. Chiya), rather, he commanded to clear them - perhaps he commanded everyone to clear room for himself.
(Mishnah): To make room for guests.
(R. Yochanan): Hosting guests is as great as coming early to the Beis Medrash - the Mishnah says, to make room for guests or Talmidim in the Beis Medrash.
(Rav Dimi of Neharda'a): Hosting guests is greater than coming early to the Beis Medrash - making room for guests is taught before making room for Talmidim!
(Rav Yehudah): Hosting guests is greater than receiving the Shechinah - (Avraham was talking with Hash-m, and interrupted in order to host guests,) "Im Na Motzosi Chen b'Einecha Al Na Sa'avor me'Al Avdecha".
(R. Elazar): This shows [another way] that Hash-m is unlike people - a less important person cannot tell a more important person to wait for him, yet Avraham could say so to Hash-m!
(Rav Yehudah): There are six things for which a person receives dividends [of his reward] in this world, and the principal is intact for him in the world to come - hosting guests, investigating the needs of the sick, concentration in prayer, coming early to the Beis Medrash, raising one's children to learn Torah, and judging one's fellow man favorably.
Question (Mishnah): Regarding the following, a person receives dividends in this world, and the principal is intact for him in the world to come - honoring parents; bestowing Chesed; and making peace between people; learning Torah is equivalent to all of them.
Inference: These are the only ones!
Answer: Rav Yehudah's six are included in the four of the Mishnah (hosting guests, Bikur Cholim and concentration in prayer are Chasadim; coming early to the Beis Medrash and raising one's children to learn Torah are included in learning Torah; judging favorably makes peace between people).
JUDGING ONE'S FELLOW MAN FAVORABLY
(Beraisa): If one judges his fellow man favorably, he is judged favorably;
It happened that a man from the north hired himself out to someone in the south for three years; at the end on Erev Yom Kipur, he requested his wages so he could feed his wife and children.
The employer said that he had no money. The worker requested produce; the employer said that he had none. The worker successively requested land, animals, pillows and blankets; and received the same answer each time. The worker went home dejected.
After Sukos, the employer brought the wages to him along with three donkeys, one full of food, one with drink, and one with delicacies. After they ate and drank, he asked 'What did you suspect when I denied having everything you requested?'
The worker: When you denied having money, I thought, perhaps you found merchandise at a bargain price and spent all your money; regarding animals and land, perhaps they are rented out to others; regarding produce, perhaps it is not tithed yet; regarding pillows and blankets, perhaps you were Makdish all your possessions.
The employer: You were right! I was Makdish them on account of my son Hurkenus, who did not engage in Torah - afterwards, my colleagues in the south permitted my vows;
Just like you judged me favorably, Hash-m should judge you favorably!
(Beraisa): A case occurred, a Chasid redeemed a Bas Yisrael; at the inn, he had her sleep at the foot of his bed. The next morning he immersed and taught his Talmidim.
The Chasid: When I had her sleep at the foot of my bed, what did you suspect?
The Talmidim: Perhaps you are unsure about one of us [so you must guard her];
The Chasid: When I immersed, what did you suspect?
The Talmidim: Perhaps you had an emission on account of exertion of travelling.
The Chasid: You were right! Just like you judged me favorably, Hash-m should judge you favorably!
(Beraisa): There was a Nochris that all the important men of Romi were frequent with; once, Chachamim needed something from her - R. Yehoshua volunteered to go.
His Talmidim escorted him. He removed his Tefilin four Amos from her house, entered and locked the door. After he left, he immersed and taught his Talmidim.
R. Yehoshua: When I removed my Tefilin, what did you suspect?
The Talmidim: Kedushah should not enter a place of Tum'ah!
R. Yehoshua: When I locked the door, what did you suspect?
The Talmidim: Perhaps you must tell her something about the kingdom that must be kept secret.
R. Yehoshua: When I immersed, what did you suspect?
The Talmidim: Perhaps spit from her mouth came on your clothing (mid'Rabanan, a Nochri is like a Nidah, one who carries her spit becomes Tamei).
R. Yehoshua: You were right! Just like you judged me favorably, Hash-m should judge you favorably!
FOODS THAT MAY BE MOVED ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): We may clear out Tahor Terumah.
Objection: This is obvious (it is edible)!
Answer: The case is, a Yisrael has it; one might have thought, since he may not eat it he may not move it - the Mishnah teaches that this is not so, since Kohanim may eat it anyone may move it.
Question: He may not eat it!
Answer: Since if he would make his property Hefker, he would be [an Oni and] permitted to eat it, he may move it;
(Mishnah): We may feed Demai to an Oni or a guest.
(Rav Huna - Beraisa - Beis Shamai): We may not feed Demai to an Oni or a guest;
Beis Hillel permit Demai to an Oni or a guest.
(Mishnah): Ma'aser Rishon from which Terumah was taken.
Objection: This is obvious!
Answer: The case is, the Levi received Ma'aser Rishon from sheaves and separated Terumas Ma'aser from it, but Terumah Gedolah was not taken, like R. Avahu taught:
(R. Avahu): If a Levi received Ma'aser Rishon from sheaves, it is exempt from Terumah Gedolah - "Va'Haremosem Mimenu Terumas Hash-m Ma'aser Min ha'Ma'aser" - a Levi must give [only Terumas] Ma'aser from Ma'aser, not Terumah Gedolah and Terumas Ma'aser from Ma'aser.
Question (Rav Papa): If so, the verse should exempt even if he received Ma'aser Rishon from a Kri (pile of grain)!
Answer (Abaye): In this case we apply "Mi'Kol Matnoseichem Tarimu".
Question: Why not exempt Ma'aser from a Kri and obligate Ma'aser from sheaves?
Answer: We obligate Ma'aser from a Kri because it is considered Degen (processed grain, from which Terumah must be given), sheaves are not considered Degen.
(Mishnah): Ma'aser Sheni and Hekdesh that were redeemed,
Question: This is obvious!
Answer: The case is, the principal was given, the added Chomesh was not given;
The Mishnah teaches that giving the extra Chomesh is not Me'akev the Pidyon.
(Mishnah): And dry lupines.
Only dry lupines are permitted, but not wet, for wet ones are bitter, they are not eaten.