LEARNING ABOUT THE KORBAN PESACH FROM SAVING A SEFER TORAH
Answer #2B: Rather, they said, if we may save a case with a Sefer, even though there are coins inside, all the more so we can move the skin on account of the meat!
Objection: We cannot learn from there - there, the case is a Bosis for Isur (coins are Muktzeh) and Heter (the Sefer) - here, the skin is a Bosis only for Isur!
Answer #2C: Rather, they said, if we may bring a case with coins inside in order to save a Sefer Torah, all the more so we can move the skin on account of the meat!
Question: What is the source that we may bring a case with coins inside in order to save a Sefer Torah?
Suggestion: Since the Tana of our Mishnah does not require dumping out the coins when the Sefer is already in the case, it is likewise permitted to bring a case with coins.
Rejection: When the Sefer is already in the case, he need not dump out the coins, lest in the meantime the Sefer will burn;
When he must go to bring a case, he can dump out the coins on the way [without losing any time]!
Defense of Answer #1 (Mar bar Rav Ashi): (Really, Chachamim learn from saving the case to flaying.) The objection was that we cannot learn from Tiltul to Melachah - the case is, he does not need [or intend to flay] the skin,
Question: But Abaye and Rava both say that R. Shimon agrees about a Pesik Reisha, it is as if he intended!
Answer: He flays thin strips (it is not normal to flay this way, it is forbidden only mid'Rabanan).
TO WHERE MAY WE SAVE ITEMS ON SHABBOS?
(Mishnah) Question: To where may we save them? [Chachamim permit to a Mavuy that is not Mefulash, Ben Beseira permits even to a Mavuy Mefulash.]
Question: What is a Mavuy Mefulash, and what is not Mefulash?
Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): If there are three walls and two Lechayayim (vertical posts, one on each end of the fourth side), it is not Mefulash; if there are three walls and one Lechi, it is Mefulash;
Both Tana'im hold like R. Eliezer.
(Mishnah - Beis Shamai): To permit [carrying in] a Mavuy, we need a Lechi and a Korah (horizontal beam over the opening);
Beis Hillel say, we need a Lechi or a Korah;
R. Eliezer says, we need two Lechayayim.
Objection #1 (Rabah): If there are three walls and a Lechi, you cannot call it Mefulash!
Objection #2 (Rabah): If Chachamim require three walls and two Lechayayim (one may carry anything there), they should permit even to save food and drink!
Answer #2 (Rabah): If there are two walls and two Lechayayim (one on each end of one of the open sides), it is not Mefulash; if there are two walls and one Lechi, it is Mefulash;
Both Tana'im hold like R. Yehudah.
(Beraisa): R. Yehudah said an even bigger Chidush - if one owns two houses on opposite sides of Reshus ha'Rabim, he puts a Lechi on each side (of one house, near it) and he may carry in the middle. (He holds that two walls make a Reshus ha'Yachid mid'Oraisa; the posts are needed to permit carrying even mid'Rabanan.)
Chachamim: That is not a proper Eiruv [to permit carrying] in Reshus ha'Rabim!
Objection (Abaye): Also according to you, Chachamim [permit carrying anything there, they] should permit even to save food and drink! (Tosfos - Rabah holds that Chachamim of our Mishnah hold like R. Yehudah only regarding Kisvei ha'Kodesh; Abaye says that it is unreasonable to make such a distinction.)
Answer #3 (Rav Ashi): If there are three walls and one Lechi, it is not Mefulash; if there are three walls and no Lechi, it is Mefulash;
Even R. Eliezer requires two Lechayayim only for food and drink - he permits saving a Sefer Torah with only one Lechi.
SAVING FOOD FROM A FIRE ON SHABBOS
(Mishnah): One may save three meals of food - what is fitting for people one saves for people, what is fitting for animals one saves for animals.
If the fire was on Shabbos night [before the evening meal], one may save three meals; if it was on Shabbos morning [before the morning meal], one may save two meals; if it was on Shabbos afternoon [before the third meal], one may save one meal;
R. Yosi says, no matter when it was, one may save three meals.
(Gemara) Question: It is permitted to save food (it is not Muktzeh, we save only to a place where one may carry) - there should not be any limit!
Answer #1 (Rava): Because a person is frantic about [losing] his money, if we permit him to save without limit, he may extinguish the fire.
Question (Abaye - Beraisa): If a barrel broke on the roof, one may bring and put a Kli on the ground below [to collect the contents], but he may not bring a Kli to catch the falling stream in midair or where it leaves the roof. (Tosfos Shabbos - up to three meals it is permitted to catch; Pri Megadim forbids catching any amount in the air with a second Kli.)
Why would we decree not to catch the stream?
Answer (Rava): There also, we decree lest he bring a Kli through Reshus ha'Rabim.
(Beraisa): If a barrel broke on the roof, one put a Kli on the ground, but he may not bring a Kli to catch the stream in midair or near the roof.
If he had guests, this is permitted.
He may not catch and then invite guests, rather, first he invites, then he may catch.
One may not scheme (invite guests that do not need to eat);
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah permits scheming.
Suggestion: They argue like R. Eliezer and R. Yehoshua:
(Beraisa): If an animal and its child fell into a pit [on Yom Tov - the owner wants to bring both animals up, but he may not use (slaughter) both today]:
R. Eliezer says, he brings one animal up with intent to slaughter it today - he [may not bring up the other, he] brings food down to sustain the other;
R. Yehoshua says, he brings one animal up with intent to slaughter it today, then decides that he would rather slaughter the other today, permitting him to bring it up - then, he may slaughter either.
Rejection: Perhaps R. Eliezer does not permit scheming there because it is possible to feed the animal in the pit [there will not be a loss], but he would permit regarding the barrel [he has no other way to save]!
Also - perhaps R. Yehoshua permits scheming there to avoid pain to animals, but he would forbid regarding the barrel, where this does not apply!
(Beraisa): If one [already] saved clean bread [for three meals] one may not save inferior (bran) bread (surely, he prefers the clean bread); if he saved inferior bread, he may save clean bread.
One may save on Yom Kipur to eat on [Motzei Yom Kipur, if this is] Shabbos; one may not save on Shabbos to eat on [Motzei] Yom Kipur (alternatively - for children to eat on Yom Kipur) [when Yom Kipur is on Motzei Shabbos];
There is no need to say that one may not save on Shabbos to eat on Yom Tov.
(Beraisa): (They used to bake bread by sticking dough to walls of an oven.) If one forgot to remove bread from the oven before Shabbos, he may save three meals worth of bread; he may tell others to take for themselves;
He may not unstick the bread with a Mardah (the Kli used for this), rather, he uses a knife.
Question (Beraisa - Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): "Lo Sa'aseh Chol Melachah" - this excludes blowing a Shofar and unsticking bread, for these are Chachmos, not Melachos.
Answer: [Even though they are not Melachos,] we deviate as much as possible [from the way we do things during the week].
THE MEALS ONE MUST EAT ON SHABBOS
(Rav Chisda): One should begin to prepare for Shabbos early on Erev Shabbos (right after Shacharis; Bi'ur Halachah - some say, even before praying) - "V'Hayah ba'Yom ha'Shishi v'Hechinu Es Asher Yavi'u" - they prepared right after bringing [the Man, which was early in the morning].
(R. Aba): On Shabbos one must Botze'a on two loaves, to fulfill "Lechem Mishnah".
Rav Ashi: I saw Rav Kahana hold two loaves and cut one.
R. Zeira would cut a large piece to suffice for the entire meal.
Ravina: But that looks like gluttony!
Rav Ashi: Since he does so only on Shabbos, it does not look like gluttony.
When R. Ami and R. Asi would eat bread used for an Eruv [Chatzeros], they would bless on it - since it was used for one Mitzvah, it is good to use it for another.
(Mishnah): If the fire [was on Shabbos night...]
(Beraisa) Question: How many meals must one eat on Shabbos?
Answer #1: He must eat three meals;
Answer #2 (R. Chidka): He must eat four meals.
(R. Yochanan): Both of them expound the same verse:
"Ichluhu ha'Yom Ki Shabbos ha'Yom la'Shem ha'Yom Lo Simtza'uhu ba'Sadeh" - R. Chidka holds that the three times it says "ha'Yom" allude to three meals [during the daytime], not including the Shabbos night meal;
Chachamim hold that they allude to three meals including the Shabbos night meal.