MELACHOS THAT ARE SIMILAR TO EACH OTHER
(Mishnah): Winnowing, Borer, grinding, sifting.
Question: Winnowing, Borer and sifting are all the same (removing the undesired part)!
Answer (Abaye and Rava): Every labor done to build the Mishkan is listed [as an Av Melachah by itself], even if some of them are very similar.
Question: Also pounding should be listed (even though it is like threshing, for spices were pounded)!
Answer #1 (Abaye): [The Tana begins by listing the Melachos used to make bread -] because an Oni does not pound [to make high quantity flour], it was excluded.
Answer #2 (Rava): Our Mishnah is Rebbi, who expounds that there are 39 Melachos - if we would include pounding, there would be 40.
Objection: If so, he should include pounding (with threshing) and exclude winnowing, Borer or sifting [to teach two of each grouping of similar Melachos, instead of one of these and all three of those]!
Conclusion: We must answer like Abaye.
WHEN IS SELECTING PERMITTED ON SHABBOS?
(Beraisa): If one had several kinds of food in front of himself, he selects and eats, he selects and leaves over, he may not select; if he selected, he is Chayav Chatas.
Question: What does this mean?
Answer #1 (Ula): He selects [for himself] to eat today; he selects and leaves over, [for others to eat] today; he may not select for tomorrow - if he did, he is Chayav Chatas.
Objection (Rav Chisda): It is forbidden to bake or cook [or do any other Melachah, including Borer] to eat that day!
Answer #2 (Rav Chisda): He selects less than a Shi'ur (k'Grogeres), and eats; he selects less than a Shi'ur and leaves over; he may not select a Shi'ur - if he did, he is Chayav Chatas.
Objection (Rav Yosef): It is forbidden to bake [or do any other Melachah, including Borer] less than a Shi'ur!
Answer #3 (Rav Yosef): He selects by hand, and eats; he selects by hand, and leaves over; he may not select using a funnel or plate - if he did, he is exempt [for these are not special for Breirah]; he may not select using a sieve; - if he did, he is Chayav Chatas.
Objection (Rav Hamnuna): The Beraisa does not mention a funnel or plate!
Answer #4 (Rav Hamnuna): He selects the food from the Pesoles (waste, what he does not desire), and eats; he selects food from the Pesoles, and leaves over; he may not select Pesoles from the food - if he did, he is Chayav Chatas.
Objection (Abaye): The Beraisa does not mention selecting food from the Pesoles!
Answer #5 (Abaye): He selects [for himself] to eat immediately; he selects and leaves over, [for others to eat] immediately; he may not select for later in the day; if he did, this is like selecting to store up, he is Chayav Chatas.
Rava approved of Abaye's answer.
(Rav Ashi - Beraisa #1): If there were two kinds of food, and one selected one of them [for himself] to eat or to leave [for others to eat], he is exempt.
(R. Yirmeyah mi'Difti): The text says 'He is liable.'
Question (against Rav Ashi - Beraisa #2): He is liable.
Answer: Beraisa #1 discusses selecting with a funnel or plate, Beraisa #2 discusses selecting with a sieve. (Rashi - Beraisa #2 is the above Beraisa (a); Tosfos - it must be another Beraisa, since Beraisa (a) permits in one case, and Breirah is never permitted with a sieve.)
Rav Dimi: Rav Bivi was serving the Talmidim on Shabbos - he dumped out a basket of fruit in front of R. Ami and R. Asi;
I do not know if he did so because he holds that it is forbidden to select food from Pesoles (the fruits from the leaves - dumping out the basket caused them to separate by themselves), or if he did so just to be generous.
(Chizkiyah): If one selects lupines from their Pesoles, he is liable.
Suggestion: He holds that it is forbidden to select food from Pesoles!
Rejection: No, lupines are different, for one cooks them seven times;
Version #1 (Rashi): If the Pesoles is not removed (some texts - if they are not cooked), they will spoil, therefore we [are stringent to] consider the lupines themselves like Pesoles, it is like Pesoles from food.
Version #2 (Mishnah Berurah): Before they have been cooked seven times, they are bitterer than the Pesoles, therefore it is like Pesoles from food.
EXAMPLES OF CHIYUVIM FOR MELACHOS
(Rav Papa): If one dices beets, he is liable for grinding. (R. Chananel explains, he cut very finely, as if they were mashed; Aruch - some say, even if he cuts into large pieces. Rashba - it was not for immediate consumption; Tosfos - other vegetables are permitted; Rosh - Rav Papa discusses wood, but grinding a food [that is ready to be eaten] is permitted.)
(Rav Menasheh): If one chops wood finely for kindling, he is liable for grinding.
(Rav Ashi): If he is particular about their length, he is liable for cutting.
(Mishnah): Kneading and baking.
(Rav Papa): Our Tana lists baking, and not cooking, even though they cooked spices for the Mishkan - he lists the Melachos used to make bread. (In any case, one who cooks is liable for baking. Rashi - baking was not done to build the Mishkan (kneading is an Av because ingredients were kneaded with water in order to make dye). R. Tam (in Tosfos ha'Rosh 74A she'Chen) - they baked bread for the sake of testing Techeiles, cooking was far more important; Rav Hai Gaon - we learn Avos also from Melachos done for the sake of Menachos - see Rashi on the Mishnah 92A.)
(Rav Acha bar Rav Avira): One who puts a wet peg into an oven to dry is liable for cooking.
Objection: This is obvious!
Answer: One might have thought that he intends only to harden it - Rav Acha teaches, this is not so, he intends to soften it first [and one is liable for this], then it hardens.
(Rabah bar Rav Huna): If one melts pitch he is liable for cooking,
Objection: This is obvious!
Answer: One might have thought that he is exempt because it hardens later - Rabah teaches, he is liable.
(Rava): If one makes a barrel, he is liable seven Chata'os (for grinding clumps of dirt very finely, Borer (removing the big pebbles), sifting the dirt in a sifter, kneading it, smoothing it (Memachek), burning [to heat the furnace] and solidifying it (cooking));
He is liable eight Chata'os for making an oven (the above seven, and Makeh b'Patish, i.e. smearing plaster on it so it will hold the heat).
(Abaye): If one makes a chest of reeds, he is liable 11 Chata'os (two for pruning the reeds (reaping and planting), for gathering, selecting the nice ones, smoothing them, cutting each into two or three thin slices (grinding), cutting them to size (Mechatech), Meisach of the warp reeds (arranging them so the woof can be intertwined), intertwining a woof reed over and under the warp, so it will stay - this is like making two Batei Nirin, weaving, cutting off the excess after weaving (Makeh b'Patish);
If he sewed an opening, he is liable another two (Rashi - he must tie it; Tosfos - he is liable for building a Kli).
PLUCKING HAIR OR FEATHERS FROM ANIMALS
(Mishnah): Shearing wool and laundering it.
(Rabah bar bar Chanah): One who spins wool [still] on a sheep on Shabbos is Chayav three Chata'os - for shearing, Menapetz and spinning.
(Rav Kahana): He is exempt - this is not the normal way to do any of these!
Question (Beraisa - R. Nechemyah): They washed [the hair while it was still] on the goats and they spun on the goats.
This shows that it is normal (and thus within the category of spinning)!
Answer: No - it was done through extra Chachmah.
(Beraisa): If one plucked a feather from a bird's wing, cut off the [soft] end, then cut the hair off the other end, he must bring three Chata'os.
(Reish Lakish): Plucking is liable for shearing, cutting off the end is liable for Mechatech, cutting the hair is liable for Memachek (smoothing).
MELACHOS INVOLVING ROPES AND THREADS
(Mishnah): Tying, untying...
Question: What did they tie for the Mishkan?
Answer #1 (Rava): They would tie [the curtains] to pegs.
Objection: That tying was with intent to untie (one is liable only for a permanent knot)!
Answer #2 (Abaye): If a thread [for the curtains] broke, they would tie it.
Question (Rava): That explains tying - what did they untie for the Mishkan?
Suggestion: If a thread tore [and was tied] in two places [near each other], they would untie the knots and [pull the ends together and] make one knot (Tosfos (73A); Rashi - if two threads near each other tore [and were tied], they would untie one of them [after weaving, to avoid two bulges near each other. According to this (but not according to Tosfos), one is liable for untying even without intent to tie.)
Rejection: This is unfit even for a mortal king, all the more so for Hash-m! (Rashi - the threads were six-fold, hence very thick, so the hole would be conspicuous - rather, on one torn thread they would tear a fair distance above and below the knot, and tie a thread to each torn end - this way, no two knots were near each other.)
Answer (and Answer #3 to Question (i) - Rava): They would tie and untie knots in nets to trap the Chilazon (the fish whose blood is used to make Techeiles).
(Mishnah): Sewing two stitches.
Question: Two stitches will come apart (anything that will not last is not a Melachah)!
Answer (Rabah bar bar Chanah): He is liable only if he tied them.
(Mishnah): Tearing in order to sew.
Question: Did they tear for the Mishkan?!
Answer (Rabah and R. Zeira): If worms made a hole in a curtain, they would tear around the hole and sew it up (Rashi; Tosfos - they would tear off the whole curtain [which was sewn to other curtains] and replace it).
(Mar Zutra bar Tuvya citing Rav): If parts of a garment are joined by a sewn thread which is not taut, and one pulls it taut [making the ends of the garment come together], he is liable for sewing;