[73a - 49 lines; 73b - 40 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 73b DH Guma ד"ה גומא:

The words "v'Hishveh la'Karka" והשוה לקרקע

should be "v'Hushvah la'Karka" והושוה לקרקע


1)[line 6]רוקROK- saliva

2)[line 21]לא מיזרקא ליהLO MIZREKA LEI- cannot be thrown

3)[line 31]טעה בשיעוריןTA'AH B'SHI'URIN- That is, he intended to do the Melachah in an amount less than the amount needed to be Chayav, and by mistake did the required amount, e.g. he intended to throw an object two Amos.

4)[line 37]תחומין ואליבא דרבי עקיבאTECHUMIN V'ALIBA D'REBBI AKIVA

A person is only allowed to travel a distance of two thousand Amos from his city or dwelling place (if he is not in a city) on Shabbos. Rebbi Akiva claims that this Halachah of "Techum Shabbos" is mentioned in the Torah. He compares two verses which specify the outer boundaries of the cities that were given to the Leviyim. One verse (Bamidbar 35:4) states that their cities' Migrashim (the open spaces outside of the cities) extend one thousand Amos from the wall of the city. The next verse (ibid. 35:5) specifies that the boundaries of the cities extend for two thousand Amos from the edges of the city. He explains that the first verse gives the cities' boundaries while the second verse sets the Techum Shabbos.


1.הזורע HA'ZORE'A - planting; causing plants to grow

2.החורש V'HA'CHORESH - plowing; preparing the earth for planting

3.הקוצרHA'KOTZER - harvesting; detaching a plant

4.המעמר HA'ME'AMER - gathering; collecting natural produce into a bundle

5.והדש HA'DASH - threshing; separating a natural product from its natural container (e.g. wheat from chaff)

6.הזורה HA'ZOREH - winnowing; using the wind to separate wanted from unwanted objects

7.הבורר HA'BORER - selecting; separating desirable items from undesirable ones (or vice versa) in a mixture

8.הטוחן HA'TOCHEN - grinding; breaking down a substance into small, usable pieces

9.המרקד HA'MERAKED - sifting; separating mixed objects with a strainer

10.הלש HA'LASH - kneading; combining particles with liquid to form a dough or paste

11.האופה HA'OFEH - baking; changing the physical state of a substance by heating it

12.הגוזז את הצמר HA'GOZEZ ES HA'TZEMER - shearing wool; detaching non-living parts from a person or animal

13.המלבנו HA'MELABNO - bleaching; freeing material from unwanted dirt, stains, dust, etc.

14.המנפצו HA'MENAPTZO - combing; untangling clumps of raw material into separate strands

15.הצובעו HA'TZOV'O - dyeing; changing or reinforcing color

16.הטווהHA'TOVEH - spinning; twisting a strand of fiber into thread

17.המיסך HA'MEISACH - threading a loom; tying the thread from the front to the back roller

18.העושה שתי בתי נירין HA'OSEH SHTEI BATEI NIRIN - threading the harness (of the loom) with two threads; inserting two threads through the rings (one in each harness)

19.האורג שני חוטין HA'OREG SHENEI CHUTIN - weaving two threads; pulling the thick latitudinal thread across the longitudinal threads which adds a new row to the material

20.הפוצע שני חוטין HA'POTZE'A SHENEI CHUTIN - (a) and thinning threads (RASHI); (b) untwisting threads (RE'AH cited by the Ran); (c) undoing a weave (RAMBAM Hilchos Shabbos 9:20); (d) cutting or removing the cloth from the loom rollers (RA'AVAD)

21.הקושר HA'KOSHER - tying; making a permanent or professional knot

22.המתיר HA'MATIR - untying; undoing a permanent or professional knot

23.התופר שתי תפירות HA'TOFER SHTEI TEFIROS - sewing two stitches; attaching two materials to one another

24.הקורע על מנת לתפור שתי תפירות HA'KORE'A AL MENAS LITFOR SHTEI TEFIROS - tearing in order to sew two stitches; ripping apart material for a useful purpose

25.הצד צבי HA'TZAD TZVI - trapping a deer; restricting the movement of an undomesticated living creature for its use

26.השוחטו HA'SHOCHATO - slaughtering; shortening the life of a living creature for its use

27.המפשיטו HA'MAFSHITO - skinning; separating the skin from the flesh of a dead animal

28.המולחו HA'MOLCHO - salting the skin (the Gemara asks that this is the same as the next Melachah, tanning, and substitutes for one of them SIRTUT, marking the skin, or outlining a surface for a useful purpose)

29.המעבד את עורו HA'ME'ABED ES ORO - tanning; processing raw material physically or chemically

30.הממחקו HA'MEMACHAKO - smoothing; rubbing an object to reduce it roughness or to form a shape

31.המחתכו HA'MECHATCHO - cutting to shape; altering the size or shape of an object for functional use

32.הכותב שתי אותיות HA'KOSEV SHTEI OSIYOS - writing two letters; creating meaningful images

33.המוחק על מנת לכתוב שתי אותיות HA'MOCHEK AL MENAS LICHTOV SHTEI OSIYOS - erasing in order to write two letters; cleaning a surface for writing

34.הבונה HA'BONEH - building; constructing or improving a structure

35.הסותר HA'SOSER - demolishing; destroying a structure to enable new construction

36.המכבה HA'MECHABEH - extinguishing (to produce charcoal); putting out a fire or reducing its intensity

37.המבעיר HA'MAV'IR - kindling a fire; igniting or prolonging combustion

38.המכה בפטיש HA'MAKEH B'PATISH - (a) hitting the hammer on the anvil to smooth it at after one's work is completed (RASHI); (b) beating a final blow with a hammer; applying the finishing touches to complete an object (TOSFOS 102b DH Makeh b'Patish); (c) striking a stone in a quarry to detach it after it has been almost completely hewn (RASHI 102b)

39.המוציא מרשות לרשות HA'MOTZI ME'RESHUS LI'RESHUS - transferring an object from a private domain to a public domain or vice versa


6)[line 2]העלם אחדHE'ELEM ECHAD- one period of forgetfulness

7)[line 3]מכרב כרבי ברישאMICHRAV KARVEI B'REISHA- plowing is done first

8)[line 6]והזומרHA'ZOMER- one who prunes

9)[line 6]המבריךHA'MAVRICH- one who puts a shoot from a vine into the ground with its end sticking out of the ground to produce a new plant (once it has rooted, the connecting shoot is severed)

10)[line 6]המרכיבHA'MARKIV- one who grafts

11)[line 7][הא קמשמע לן] העושה מלאכות הרבה ...[HA KAMASHMA LAN] HA'OSEH MELACHOS HARBEH ...- That is, the Beraisa is teaching us the same teaching that was taught by the Mishnah (on Daf 68a).

12)[line 10]זומר חייב משום נוטעZOMER CHAYAV MISHUM NOTE'A- That is, pruning is a Toldah of planting. Even though it is not at all similar to planting in practice, and one would think that there is no Biblical prohibition of pruning on Shabbos, nevertheless conceptually the two are similar (i.e. they both help the plant grow). Therefore one who prunes is indeed Chayav.

13)[line 10]והנוטע והמבריך והמרכיב חייב משום זורעVEHA'NOTE'A VEHA'MAVRICH VEHA'MARKIV CHAYAV MISHUM ZORE'A- That is, planting, grafting, or putting a shoot from a vine under the ground to propagate, are analogous to Zore'a; they are synonyms for Zore'a rather than Toldos of Zore'a (RASHI; this is evident from the fact that the Gemara calls Zomer "a Toldah of Note'a").

14)[line 12]משום נוטע לא?MISHUM NOTE'A LO?- That is, it is certainly true that all of these three are synonymous with Zore'a. Nevertheless, instead of saying that grafting or putting a shoot from a vine under the ground to propagate is the same as Zore'a, it should have said that it is the same as planting, which in turn is synonymous with Zore'a. (RASHI. The advantage of recording it this way is that these two acts, in practice, are much more similar to planting trees than to Zore'a, or planting vegetables, since they both involve trees.)

15)[line 12]אימא אף משום זורעEIMA AF MISHUM ZORE'A- That is, Rebbi Ami is not teaching that one is prohibited to graft etc. on Shabbos because it is similar to Zore'a. It is obvious that such an act is prohibited. To the contrary, he is teaching that grafting etc. is only prohibited because of Zore'a, but it is not a new Av Melachah in its own right. "Af," that is, "even these," are obligated due to Zore'a only. (Since he is not explaining the reason grafting is prohibited, but rather he is emphasizing the similarity between grafting and Zore'a [which may have appeared to be disparate acts], there is no reason to compare grafting to Note'a.) (RASHI, according to one interpretation. See Insights.)

16)[line 15]דקטל אספסתאD'KATAL ASPASTA- who cuts grain in its earliest stage of growth (for animal fodder)

17)[line 17]דקניב סילקאD'KANIV SILKA- who cuts beets (that are growing)

18)[line 19]והחורץHA'CHORETZ- one who make grooves in the ground

19)[line 21]גבשושיתGAVSHUSHIS- mound

20)[line 23]טממהTAMEMAH- he filled it with loose earth

21)[line 26]מלאכה שאינה צריכה לגופהMELACHAH SHE'EINAH TZERICHAH L'GUFAH- When a person performs a Melachah on Shabbos intentionally, but does not require the usual result of the action, Rebbi Yehudah rules that he is liable to punishment and Rebbi Shimon rules that he is exempt from punishment. For example, if a person digs a hole, not because he needs the hole (which would be Boneh) but rather because he needs the dirt, this is a Melachah she'Einah Tzerichah l'Gufah. (See Insights to Shabbos 12:1.)

22)[line 28]מקלקלMEKALKEL- to spoil. Digging a hole in the middle of one's floor ruins the floor.

23)[line 29]הבוצרHA'BOTZER- one who harvests grapes

24)[line 29]הגודרHA'GODER- one who harvests dates

25)[line 29]המסיקHA'MASIK- one who harvests olives

26)[line 29]האורהHA'OREH- one who harvests figs

27)[line 30]דשדא פיסא לדיקלאD'SHADA PISA L'DIKLA- who throws a clump of earth at a date palm

28)[line 31]אתר תמריASAR TAMREI- makes dates fall off

29)[line 34]דכניף מילחא ממלחתאD'CHANIF MILCHA MI'MALCHESA- who gathers salt from the ditches into which sea water is drawn and allowed to evaporate, leaving the salt

30)[line 37]המנפץHA'MENAPETZ- (a) one who beats flax in its stalks (RASHI); (b) one who shakes off the dirt from crops (RABEINU CHANANEL, ARUCH)

31)[line 37]המנפטHA'MENAPET- (a) one who beats cotton (to make its seeds fall out) (RASHI); (b) according to the Girsa "HA'MENAPES" - one who rubs stalks to husk the grain (RABEINU CHANANEL, ARCUH)