[46a - 37 lines; 46b - 32 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 46a [last line]
The words "Leika Toras Kli Aleha" ליכא תורת כלי עליה
should be "Leika Toras Kli Aleihen" ליכא תורת כלי עליהן
This is the Girsa in the earlier printings of the Shas.
1)[line 1]לנטותהLI'NTOSAH- to spread out [the canopy]. Since the uppermost part of the canopy is not a Tefach wide, it does not violate the prohibition of pitching a tent, which falls under the Melachah of Boneh (building)
2)[line 1]לפרקהL'FARKAH- to take it apart
3)[line 2]חוליותCHULYOS- segments
4)[line 4]חידקיCHIDKEI- (O.F. crens) notches
5)[line 17]הורה במנורה כרבי שמעון בנרHORAH B'MENORAH K'REBBI SHIMON B'NER- [Rebbi] ruled in the case of a candelabrum like Rebbi Shimon in the case of a lamp. The Gemara ponders whether (a) Rebbi ruled that a candelabrum is not Muktzah like Rebbi Shimon ruled with regard to a lamp, or (b) Rebbi ruled that a candelabrum is Muktzah and that the Halachah with regard to a lamp follows Rebbi Shimon's ruling, that it is not Muktzah.
6)[line 31]שרגא דמשחאSHERAGA D'MISHCHA- an oil lamp (which has gone out)
7)[line 31]נפטאNAFTA- naphtha. Naphtha is any of several volatile mixtures of hydrocarbons obtained by distilling coal, tar, or petroleum and used as fuels.
8)[line 33]בי כרעיהBEI KAR'EI- his shoe[s]
9)[line 34]בטינאTINA- mud
10)[line 34]אתיבי אפוריאASIVEI A'PURYA- Rav Ivya put them on the bed
11)[line 34]בעא לצעוריהBA'A L'TZE'UREI- [Rava] wanted to irritate him (Rav Ivya) [by asking him difficult questions]
12)[line 1]השיריםHA'SHEIRIM- bracelets
13)[line 1]הנזמיםHA'NEZAMIM- nose rings or earrings (Ibn Ezra to Bereishis 24:22)
14)[line 5]לא כסיפיה רבא לרב אויאLO KESIFEI RAVA L'RAV IVYA- that Rava did not embarrass Rav Ivya
15)[line 9]מומוMUMO (BECHOR: MUMIN)
(a)The Kedushah of Bechor rests on every firstborn male of an ox, goat or sheep when it comes out of its mother's womb. Nevertheless, there is a Mitzvah for a person to sanctify it himself (Erchin 29a, based on Devarim 15:19). He must then give it to a Kohen; it may not be redeemed.
(b)If the animal has no Mum (blemish), the Kohen must bring it as a Korban during its first year. After its blood and Emurim (see Background to Pesachim 43:15a and 95:9) are offered on the Mizbe'ach, its meat is eaten in Yerushalayim during the following two days and the intervening night by Kohanim, their wives, children and slaves.
(c)If the Kohen suspects that his Bechor has a Mum, he must take it to a Chacham (an authority on Mumim) to check whether the Mum is permanent. If it is, the Chacham rules that the animal no longer needs to be brought as a Korban. A Kohen who is a Chacham may not rule with regard to his own animals. (For a list of Mumin, see Background to Bechoros 41:3.)
(d)If the animal has a Mum, it must be slaughtered and eaten during its first year. If it developed a Mum after the first year, it must be slaughtered and eaten within thirty days. The Kohen can give it away or sell it, even to a non-Kohen. However, it may not be sold in a meat market or weighed in the usual manner.
(e)Whether or not it has a Mum, it is forbidden to work with a Bechor or to shear it. Any fleece that is removed from a Bechor, even if it came off on its own, is Asur b'Hana'ah. If, upon Shechitah, the animal is found to be a Tereifah, it is Asur b'Hana'ah and must be buried.
(f)Now that there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, a Kohen must care for a Bechor until it develops a Mum. Alternatively, he can sell it, even if it has no Mum, to a non-Kohen, who may eat it after it develops a Mum. It may not be bought, however, in order to be sold for a profit (Sefer ha'Chinuch #393, #445).
16)[line 16]מי יימר דמזדקק ליה חכםMI YEIMAR D'MIZDAKEK LEI CHACHAM- who is to say that he will find a Chacham [on Yom Tov who will rule with regard to the Mum on his animal]? (Furthermore, Rebbi Shimon rules that it is prohibited for a Chacham to check Mumim on Yom Tov. -TOSFOS)
17)[line 17]מפירין נדריםMEFIRIN NEDARIM (NEDARIM: HAFARAH)
(a)A man has the right to annul certain vows of his wife and his daughter, as the Torah states in Bamidbar 30:6, 9, 13-14. He accomplishes this if on the day that he hears the vow he states "Mufar Lach" ("it is annulled"). See Background to Nazir 19:1.
(b)If they made a vow that pertains to Shabbos (e.g. not to eat on Shabbos), he may annul it even on Shabbos.
18)[line 17]נשאלין לנדריםNISH'ALIN L'NEDARIM (NEDARIM: SHE'EILAH)
When a person makes a Neder or oath of Nezirus, he may have it revoked by a Beis Din of three (if they are not outstanding authorities) or a Yachid Mumcheh (an outstanding authority). The general method used is that Beis Din investigates whether the person would not have made the Neder or oath in the first place had he been aware of a particular fact.
19a)[line 25]חכםCHACHAM- an authority on vows who has the power to revoke a vow
b)[line 25]הדיוטותHEDYOTOS- people who are not authorities on vows. Even so, three of them form a Beis Din and may cancel a vow.
20)[line 25]לא כבתה לא מאי טעמאLO KAVSAH LO, MAI TAIMA- That is, even though we have established that it is prohibited to remove oil from a burning lamp since the oil is Muktzah Machmas Mitzvah (see Background to Shabbos 43:11-b), this does not prohibit moving the lamp, according to Rebbi Shimon, because moving the lamp does not diminish the Mitzvah (TOSFOS 45a DH Ela). See Insights, and Chart #8, footnote 2.
21)[line 25]בהדי דנקיט להBAHADEI D'NAKIT LAH- while he is holding it
22)[line 26]דבר שאין מתכויןDAVAR SHE'EIN MISKAVEN
(a)An act which is done for a certain purpose (which will be accomplished without transgressing a Melachah), but which may result in a Melachah being inadvertently performed, it is called a Davar she'Eino Miskavein. The example brought in our Gemara is dragging a bench or chair on soft ground, where a furrow may possibly be created while dragging. (Digging a furrow is included in the Melachah of Choresh, plowing.) Rebbi Yehudah prohibits performing such an action, since it may result in a Melachah. Rebbi Shimon disagrees, claiming that even though a Melachah may result from this action, since the Melachah will come about without intent, the action is permitted. Rebbi Shimon therefore permits a person to drag a bench across a dirt floor as long as he does not intend to make a furrow. Similarly, Rebbi Shimon permits a person to move a lamp as long as he does not intend to extinguish it
(b)Rebbi Shimon and Rebbi Yehudah disagree only if it is not clear that a furrow will be created (i.e., a Melachah will be done). If it is inevitable for a furrow to be created, the act is prohibited even according to Rebbi Shimon — even though the person dragging the bench is not the least bit interested in the furrow and does not intend to create it. Such a situation, in which a Melachah will inevitably be accomplished, is referred to as "Pesik Reishei v'Lo Yamus."
(c)A person must have specific intent to do a Melachah on Shabbos in order to be liable for punishment or to be required to bring a Korban. Therefore, if a person drags a bench and a furrow does result, even Rebbi Yehudah will agree that the person who dragged it is not obligated to bring a Korban, since the furrow was created accidentally. Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue only as to whether it is permitted in the first place to perform an action that may result in a Melachah.
23)[line 27]חריץCHARITZ- furrow, groove
24)[line 31]הצנועיןHA'TZENU'IN- the scrupulous, who stay away from any hint of sin
25)[line 31]מפשילין במקל לאחוריהןMAFSHILIN B'MAKEL LA'ACHOREIHEN- tie the garments to a stick and put them over their shoulders