[40a - 50 lines; 40b - 44 lines]
We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.
 Gemara 40a [line 7]:
"Chamin she'Huchamu me'Erev Shabbos" חמים שהוחמו מערב שבת
 Gemara 40a [line 32]:
The words "Amar Rav Yehudah, Ma'aseh b'Merchatz Shel Bnei Brak" אמר רב יהודה מעשה במרחץ של בני ברק
should be "Amar Rebbi Yehudah, Ma'aseh b'Merchatz Shel Bnei Brak" אמר רבי יהודה מעשה במרחץ של בני ברק
(This is the way it appears in the older printings of the Shas. This is also evident from Tosfos DH Ela.)
 Gemara 40a [line 33]:
"she'Pakeku Nekavav me'Erev Yom Tov" שפקקו נקביו מערב יום טוב
It seems that Rashi (DH Rochetz and DH Mechupin) and Tosfos (DH l'Motza'ei and 39b DH u'Beis Hillel) were not Gores "me'Erev Yom Tov," rather "miba'Erev," as the Ritva and Shabbos Shel Mi point out. (The Maharshal struggles to explain the words of Tosfos, but his efforts are unnecessary in light of this corrected Girsa.)
 Gemara 40b [line 8]:
It would appear that the words "Al Bnei Mei'ayim" על בני מעים
should be "Al Gabei Mei'ayim" על גבי מעים (as Rashi writes)
1)[line 26]מטילין מבגד לבגדMATILIN MI'BEGED L'VEGED- it is permissible to remove Tzitzis from an old Talis and put them on a new Talis
2)[line 26]מדליקין מנר לנרMADLIKIN MI'NER L'NER
It is permissible to light one Chanukah light from another. This is the lenient opinion quoted on Daf 22a, in the name of Shmuel. Rav prohibits lighting one Chanukah light from another. One reason given for Rav's opinion is Bizui Mitzvah (disrespect for the Mitzvah), since the person transfers the flame with a stick that is not part of the Mitzvah. The second reason given is Akchushei Mitzvah (diminishing the Mitzvah), by taking away some of the oil. It also appears as if he is taking away some of the light.
3)[line 27]הלכה כרבי שמעון בגרירהHALACHAH K'REBBI SHIMON B'GREIRAH (DAVAR SHE'EINO MISKAVEN)
(a)An act which is done for a certain purpose (which will be accomplished without transgressing a Melachah), but which may result in a Melachah being inadvertently performed, it is called a Davar she'Eino Miskavein. The example brought in our Gemara is dragging a bench or chair on soft ground, where a furrow may possibly be created while dragging. (Digging a furrow is included in the Melachah of Choresh, plowing.) Rebbi Yehudah prohibits performing such an action, since it may result in a Melachah. Rebbi Shimon disagrees, claiming that even though a Melachah may result from this action, since the Melachah will come about without intent, the action is permitted. Rebbi Shimon therefore permits a person to drag a bench across a dirt floor as long as he does not intend to make a furrow.
(b)Rebbi Shimon and Rebbi Yehudah disagree only if it is not clear that a furrow will be created (i.e., a Melachah will be done). If it is inevitable for a furrow to be created, the act is prohibited even according to Rebbi Shimon — even though the person dragging the bench is not the least bit interested in the furrow, and does not intend to create it. Such a situation, in which a Melachah will inevitably be accomplished, is referred to as "Pesik Reishei v'Lo Yamus."
(c)A person must have specific intent to do a Melachah on Shabbos in order to be liable for punishment or to be required to bring a Korban. Therefore, if a person drags a bench and a furrow does result, even Rebbi Yehudah will agree that the person who dragged it is not obligated to bring a Korban, since the furrow was created accidentally. Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue only as to whether it is permitted in the first place to perform an action that may result in a Melachah.
4)[line 29]מרחץ שפקקו נקביוMERCHATZ SHE'PAKEKU NEKAVAV- a bathhouse in which: (a) its vents were stopped up so that the heat should not escape (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) the holes in the floorboards through which the steam rises were stopped up (RASHI, 2nd explanation); (c) the holes from which hot water enters the bathhouse were stopped up (RASH to Kelim 28:2)
5)[line 31]מזיעMEZI'A- sweats
6)[line 31]בית החיצוןBAYIS HA'CHITZON- the outer room
7)[line 32]בני ברקBNEI BRAK- a town in Eretz Yisrael, in which Rebbi Akiva lived
8)[line 35]מחופין בנסריםMECHUPIN B'NESARIM- covered with boards
9)[line 38]אמבטיאות של כרכיןAMBATYA'OS SHEL KERAKIN- large bathhouses that are in big cities
10)[line 39]מטייל בהןMETAYEL BAHEN- one may walk through them as long as one does not have intent to use them as a sauna
11)[line 42]הבלניםHA'BALANIM- the bathhouse attendants
12)[line 42]להחםL'HACHEM- to heat up [water]
13)[line 46]חמי טבריהCHAMEI TEVERYAH- water from the hot springs of Tiberias
14)[line 49]זיעה במקומה עומדתZEI'AH BI'MEKOMAH OMEDES- the decree prohibiting sweating remained in force
15)[last line]שרי למיקרי ליה עבריינאSHARI L'MIKREI LEI AVARYANA- it is permitted to call him a transgressor
16a)[line 2]כרכיןKERAKIN- big cities
b)[line 3]כפריםKEFARIM- villages
17)[line 3]זוטריןZUTRIN- the bathhouses are small
18)[line 3]נפיש הבלייהוNAFISH HEVLAIHU- they are very hot
19)[line 4]כנגד המדורהKENEGED HA'MEDURAH- opposite (facing) a large fire
20)[line 5]ומשתטף בצונןU'MISHTATEF B'TZONEN- (This Beraisa follows the view of Rebbi Yehudah above (39b), who permits a person to rinse himself only with cold water and not with hot water.)
21)[line 6]מפשיר מיםMAFSHIR MAYIM- [the bonfire] warms the water
22)[line 7]מיחם אדם אלונטיתMEICHAM ADAM ALONTIS- a person may warm a towel (O.F. tevale)
23)[line 8]על בני מעיםAL BNEI ME'AYIM- on his stomach
24)[line 9]קומקומוסKUMKUMOS- a kettle
25)[line 13]תפיג צינתןTAFIG TZINASAN- their coldness should go away
26)[line 15]יפשרYIPASHER- it should become warm
27)[line 21]היד סולדת בוHA'YAD SOLEDES BO
The Melachah of Bishul (cooking) is transgressed whether one cooks, roasts, fries, or bakes food. As long as one prepares the food for eating by using fire or the like, he transgresses this prohibition. The temperature required for the Melachah of Bishul is, in general, Yad Soledes Bo (the temperature at which the hand recoils in anticipation of pain). This is not less than 45 degrees Celsius, or 113 degrees Fahrenheit. (Shemiras Shabbos k'Hilchasah 1:1)
28)[line 22]שמן אין בו משום בשולSHEMEN EIN BO MISHUM BISHUL- if a person heats up oil even to Yad Soledes Bo, he has not violated the prohibition against cooking
29)[line 24]הפשרו זהו בשולוHEFSHERO ZEHU BISHULO
A person who warms oil, even to a temperature less than Yad Soledes Bo, transgresses the prohibition against cooking. Even though warming oil is considered cooking, however, warming it on one's hand (which is kel'Achar Yad; see next entry) is permitted, since warming oil is equated to cooking only mid'Rabanan.
30)[line 28]כלאחר ידKEL'ACHAR YAD
Whenever a Melachah of Shabbos is done in an abnormal fashion, the transgressor is not liable to the Torah-prescribed punishment. He is said to have done the Melachah kel'Achar Yad (lit. toward the back of the hand, referring to an unusual manner of spinning thread).
31)[line 30]נכויתNICHVEIS- gets burned
32)[line 31]באמבטיAMBATI- a bathtub or bathing pool
33)[line 31]בכלי שניKLI SHENI
The "second utensil" is the one into which the food was poured from the utensil in which it was cooked (Kli Rishon).
34)[line 34]להרהרL'HARHER- to think [about words of Torah]
35)[line 36]אפרושי מאיסוראAFRUSHEI MI'ISURA- to prevent a person from transgressing a prohibition
36)[line 38]להדיח קרקעL'HADI'ACH KARKA- to wash the ground
37)[line 42]מכת מרדותMAKAS MARDUS
Beis Din has the power to inflict lashes upon a person when lashes mid'Oraisa cannot be instituted. These lashes are called Makas Mardus (lit. lashes for rebelliousness) and may be unlimited in number. (See Insights to Chulin 110:1 for a discussion of the various opinions regarding how Makas Mardus is administered.)
38)[line 42]אנא חזיתיה לרבי אבהוANA CHAZISEI L'REBBI AVAHU- I saw Rebbi Avahu
39)[line 43]שטSHAT- he floated. Swimming is prohibited on Shabbos (a) lest a person build a raft or small boat, transgressing the Melachah of Boneh (this does not apply to a bathtub); (b) lest a person kick water out that will travel more than a distance of four Amos in Reshus ha'Rabim, transgressing the Melachah of Hotza'ah (this applies even to a bathtub)
40)[line 43]אי עקרIY AKAR- if he took his feet off the ground