[28a - 45 lines; 28b - 49 lines]

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We recommend using the textual changes suggested by the Bach and the marginal notes of the Vilna Shas. This section is devoted to any other important corrections that Acharonim have pointed out in the Gemara, Rashi and Tosfos.

[1] Rashi 28a DH Af Ani [at the end of the page] : ד"ה אף אני

This Dibur should be before the Dibur "Sheratzim Metam'in" שרצים מטאמין.

[2] Rashi 28b DH Mai Havei Alah ד"ה מאי הוי עלה:

The words "Ho'il ul'Rav Yosef" הואיל ולרב יוסף

should be "Ho'il ud'Rav Yosef" הואיל ודרב יוסף


1)[line 3]המשכןHA'MISHKAN

The Jewish people were commanded to build a Mishkan (a dwelling place) for HaSh-m in the desert, as it states in Shemos, chapters 25-28. The three covers for the Mishkan are described in Shemos 26:1-14. They were called Mishkan, Ohel (tent), and Michseh (covering).

(a)The Mishkan was woven out of white linen and three colors of wool: Techeles (green or blue; see Insights to Berachos 57:3), Argaman (purple), and Tola'as Shani (crimson). (b) The Ohel was woven out of goat hairs.

(c)The Michseh consisted of skins of rams, dyed red (RASHI to Shemos 25:5 DH Me'adamim) and the skin of the Tachash animal. Rebbi Yehudah states that there were two Michsa'os. The lower one was only ram's skin and the upper one was only Tachash. Rebbi Nechemyah disagrees and claims that the Michseh consisted of these two types of skin attached together, with each type in the shape of a triangle.

2a)[line 5]שזוריןSHEZURIN- (O.F. retors) twisted

b)[line 5]חוטן כפול ששCHUTAN KAFUL SHESH- and each of the types of thread used for the Mishkan was made of six threads twisted together

3)[line 8]קרשיםKERASHIM- beams

4)[line 16]דהדר אהדריה קראD'HADAR AHADREI KRA- That is, the Torah compares the "Michseh" of ram's skin to the "Ohel" of goat's hair, thus proving that the skin of Kosher animals does indeed become Tamei. Once this is established, it is reasonable that Rebbi Elazar went on to examine whether even the skins of non-Kosher animals become Tamei.

5)[line 23]תחשTACHASH- the animal whose multicolored skin was used as a Michseh (cover) for the Mishkan. According to Chazal, this was its only contact with humans. Before and after the building of the Mishkan, it was hidden.

6)[line 28]עורות אילים מאדמיםOROS EILIM ME'ADAMIM- the skin of rams, dyed red (RASHI to Shemos 25:5 DH Me'adamim)

7)[line 30]תלא אילןTALA ILAN- a small multicolored non-Kosher animal, identified as the squirrel, the badger, or the genet (ARUCH)

8)[line 34]ששש בגוונין הרבהSHE'SAS B'GIVUNIN HARBEH- that it rejoices in [its] many colors

9)[line 41]לא ראי זה כראי זהLO RE'I ZEH K'RE'I ZEH

(a)The method of learning that is being used by our Gemara is called a comparison, or "Meh Matzinu" - "What we have found [in one subject, applies to another subject, also.]" Among the rules of this method is the rule of a "Pirchah" (a question), where even a slight difference between the subjects causes the comparison to collapse, and no connection may be made.

(b)If a Pirchah is asked, the Gemara will bring a "Yochi'ach" or "Tochi'ach" (fem.) (a proof), where another subject, which fulfills the requirements of the Pirchah, is used to rebuild the comparison. A second Pirchah usually follows, where the Yochi'ach subject is brought into question. Then the original subject becomes the Yochi'ach.

(c)The conclusion is "v'Chazar ha'Din" - "the argument goes back and forth," "Lo Re'i Zeh k'Re'i Zeh" - "this subject is not exactly like that subject and vice versa," but the "Tzad ha'Shaveh" - "common denominator" may be used to connect the Halachos of the two subjects, and we may learn a new Halachah from them. The common denominator may also be brought into question, which inhibits learning the new Halachah from the two subjects.


10)[line 1]נוצה של עזיםNOTZAH SHEL IZIM- goat hair

11)[line 8]מן המותר בפיךMIN HA'MUTAR L'FICHA- from that which is permitted to be put in your mouth and eaten

12)[line 10]לכורכן בשערןL'KORCHAN B'SA'ARAN- to tie the parchments with the hairs of a Kosher animal

13)[line 10]לתופרן בגידןL'TOFRAN B'GIDAN- to sew the parchments with the sinews of a Kosher animal

14)[line 17]בריה בפני עצמהBIRYAH BIFNEI ATZMAH- a species of its own

15)[line 17]לא הכריעו בה חכמיםLO HICHRI'U BAH CHACHAMIM- the Chachamim did not decide

16)[line 24]"ותיטב ... מקרין מפריס""V'SITAV ... MAKRIN MAFRIS"- "And it shall please HaSh-m more than an ox (Shor) [that has the characteristics of] a bull (Par) that has horns and hoofs." (Tehilim 69:32) - RASHI to Tehilim explains that the one-day-old ox that Adam offered as a sacrifice had the characteristics of a Par (usually a two- or three-year-old bull, which may be sacrificed). Ordinarily, an animal is not fit for sacrificing until it is at least eight days old.

17)[line 27]קרשKERESH- a kosher wild animal with one horn growing from its forehead; possibly a giraffe (SICHAS CHULIN to Chulin 64)

18)[line 29]פתילת הבגדPESILAS HA'BEGED- a cloth wick

19)[line 29]קיפלהKIPLAH- one has twisted or folded into the shape of a wick

20)[line 29]לא הבהבהLO HIVHEVAH- has not singed

21)[line 32]קיפול אינו מועילKIPUL EINO MO'IL- twisting or folding it into the shape of a wick does not make it lose its status as a Beged (a useful cloth or article of clothing); therefore it still receives Tum'ah

22)[line 32]קיפול אינו מועילKIPUL EINO MO'IL- That is, twisting or folding the cloth to make it into a wick is not an action significant enough to make the cloth change its status from that of a Beged (a useful cloth or article of clothing) to that of a wick (that is not considered a "Kli" and does not receive Tum'ah). Rather, an action that changes the physical cloth itself (such as singeing the cloth and the like) is needed for it to lose its status of a Beged (RITVA).

23)[line 36]מצומצמותMETZUMTAMOS- exactly

24)[line 37]וביום טוב שחל להיות ערב שבת עסקינןUV'YOM TOV SHE'CHAL LIHEYOS B'EREV SHABBOS ASKINAN- That is, the Mishnah's ruling was stated because of Yom Tov that falls on Friday. However, even if Yom Tov does not fall on Friday, the argument of the Mishnah still stands, because of the possibility that people will not realize the difference between a normal Friday and a Friday Yom Tov. (RAMBAM, Peirush ha'Mishnayos; a similar explanation is found in the Rashba to Shabbos 149a DH Hacha)

25)[line 38]מסיקיןMASIKIN- it is permitted to burn

26)[line 39]אין מסיקין בשברי כליםEIN MASIKIN B'SHIVREI CHEILIM (NOLAD)

(a)The word Muktzah literally means "set aside at the brink [of one's intentions for use]." The term is used to describe items that are set aside not to be used right now, such as wood stacked in a barn. In a broader sense, the word Muktzah includes anything that a person did not intend to use during Bein ha'Shemashos at the start of Shabbos, for whatever reason it may be.

(b)Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon argue as to whether one may use such items if he decides to use them later on Shabbos. There are at least six different types of Muktzah over which Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Shimon disagree. On Shabbos, such objects may not be moved according to Rebbi Yehudah except in certain circumstances; see the introduction of Beis Yosef to Tur Orach Chayim 308.

(c)When an item did not exist in its present form during the Bein ha'Shemashos between Friday and Shabbos, rather it was created (or was significantly changed) on Shabbos, it belongs to the category of Muktzah known as Nolad (born). Utensils that broke on Shabbos did not exist in their present form before Shabbos. Therefore they are Nolad. Similarly, date pits from dates that were eaten on Shabbos are Nolad, since they were part of a fruit when Shabbos came in and only emerged as pits on Shabbos. Moving them is prohibited according to Rebbi Yehudah and permitted according to Rebbi Shimon.