ONE'S MAZEL CAN SEE DANGER
Question: "...Aval Charadah Gedolah Noflah Aleihem" - if they did not see, why were they afraid?
Answer: They did not see, but each one's Mazel (the angel appointed over him) saw.
(Ravina): This teaches that if someone is afraid and does not know why, it is because his Mazel saw something.
Question: What should he do?
Answer #1: He should jump four Amos from where he is.
Answer #2: He should recite "Shma Yisrael..."
Answer #3: If there is a (odorous) filth in the area (he may not recite Shma), he should say this charm - 'the goat at the butchery is fatter than I am.'
CHIZKIYAH ALMOST BECAME MASHI'ACH
Question (R. Tanchum): "L'Marbeh ha'Misrah ul'Shalom Ein Ketz" - why is the 'Mem' in "l'Marbeh" written closed (i.e. like a final Mem)?
Answer: Hash-m wanted to make Chizkiyah Mashi'ach, and Sancheriv (would have fulfilled the prophecy of) Gog and Magog. Midas ha'Din protested:
David sang so many praises to You, but You did not make him Mashi'ach. You did great miracles for Chizkiyah (wiping out Sancheriv's great army overnight, curing Chizkiyah and prolonging the day), he did not sing Shirah. Will You make him Mashi'ach?!
(The closed Mem represents the closure of Hash-m's intention, or that Hash-m wanted to cease Yisrael's affliction, or that because Chizkiyah's mouth was closed, it did not happen.)
The land: I will sing Shirah in place of him, and You can make him Mashi'ach - "mi'Knaf ha'Aretz Zemiros";
"Shomanu Tzvi la'Tzadik" - the angel appointed over the world asked Hash-m to do the Tzivyon (desire) of the Tzadik (Chizkiyah).
A Bas Kol: It is My secret (why he will not be Mashi'ach).
The Navi (Yeshayah) lamented 'Woe to me. When will Mashi'ach come?'
A Bas Kol: "Bogedim Bagadu u'Veged Bogedim Bagadu."
(Rava): He will not come until several waves of plunderers despoil Yisrael.
(R. Yochanan): "Masa Dumah..." is the angel appointed over Neshamos;
"Elai Korei mi'Se'ir Shomer Mah mi'Laylah" - all the Neshamos ask when the redemption will come, ending the night (Galus);
"Omar Shomer Asa Voker v'Gam Laylah" - Hash-m says, morning (the redemption) is coming, but after there is still much Galus first. (Alternatively - redemption is coming, i.e. the second Beis ha'Mikdash will be built, but another Galus will follow. Alternatively, there is reward for Tzadikim, and punishment for Resha'im.)
"Im Tiv'ayun Be'ayu Shuvu Esav" - if you will pray for redemption and do Teshuvah, it will come.
(R. Papyus): It was a disgrace for Chizkiyah and his followers that they did not sing Shirah until the land did - "mi'Knaf ha'Aretz..."
Similarly, R. Papyus taught that it was a disgrace for Moshe and Yisrael that they did not bless Hash-m for saving us from Mitzrayim until Yisro did - "Baruch Hash-m Asher Hitzil Eschem."
(Rav): "Va'Yichad Yisro" - he passed a sharp sword over his flesh (circumcised himself and converted).
(Shmuel): His flesh was covered with wrinkles, for he was pained at the downfall of Mitzrayim.
(Rav Papa): This is like people say, that one should not disgrace a Nochri in front of a convert or his descendants until 10 generations.
Question: "Yeshalach ha'Adon Hash-m Tzevakos b'Mishmanav Razon" - what does this mean?
Answer: Hash-m said that Chizkiyah, who has eight names, should defeat Sancheriv, who has eight names;
About Chizkiyah it says "...va'Yikra Shemo El Gibor Pele Yo'etz Avi Ad Sar Shalom";
Question: He is also called Chizkiyah!
Answer: That was not his true name. He is called so because Chizko Kah (Hash-m strengthened him), or because he Chizek Yisrael to serve Hash-m.
Sancheriv's names were Tiglas Pil'eser, Piln'eser, Shalman'eser, Pul, Sargon, Osnapar, Raba, v'Yakira (Rashi; Gra omits Raba and v'Yakira from this list, and adds (Tiglas) Peleser and (Tiglas) Pilneser).
Question: He is also called Sancheriv!
Answer: That was not his true name. He is called so because Sichaso Riv (his speech was quarrelsome), or because Sach v'Nicher (he spoke and reviled Hash-m).
(R. Yochanan): This Rasha merited to be called "Osnapar Raba v'Yakira (the great and dear)" because he did not speak bad about Eretz Yisrael - "v'Lokachti Eschem El Eretz k'Artzechem" (he did not say that he would exile them to a place better than Eretz Yisrael).
(Rav or Shmuel): He was a wise king. Had he told the 10 tribes that he will exile them to a better land, they would not have believed him.
(The other of Rav and Shmuel): He was a foolish king. Surely, people will not agree to move unless they think that the new land will be better!
Question: To where did he exile them?
Answer #1 (Mar Zutra): He exile them to Africa.
Answer #2 (R. Chanina): He exiled them to Harei Selug.
Yisrael spoke bad about Eretz Yisrael. When they reached Shosh, they said 'this is Shaveh (equal to) Eretz Yisrael.' They said similarly when they reached Almin (it is like Almin, i.e. our land). When they reached Shosh Trei, they said 'this is twice as good as Eretz Yisrael.'
(R. Yochanan): "V'Sachas Kevodo Yekad Yekod ki'Kod Esh" - (the bodies of Sancheriv's army, which are) under their Kavod (garments), were burned;
R. Yochanan does not explain Kavod literally (their bodies). He would call his garments Machbedosai (what honors me).
(R. Elazar): (Their Neshamos, which are) under their actual Kavod (bodies) were burned, like the death of Nadav and Avihu.
Just like there, their Neshamos were burned, but their bodies were intact, also here.
(R. Yehoshua ben Korchah): Paro himself blasphemed "Mi Hash-m Asher Eshma b'Kolo?" Hash-m Himself punished him - "va'Yna'er Hash-m Es Mitzrayim b'Soch ha'Yam";
Sancheriv blasphemed through a messenger - "b'Yad Mal'achecha Cherafta Hash-m" (this is a bigger disgrace). Hash-m punished him through a messenger - "Malach Hash-m va'Yach b'Machaneh Ashur..."
Contradiction (R. Chanina bar Papa): It says "Merom Kitzo (Sancheriv said that he would destroy Hash-m's lower dwelling place)", and it says "Malon Kitzo (His dwelling place above)"!
Answer: Sancheriv first said that he will destroy His dwelling below, and later His dwelling above.
Question (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): "Hash-m Omar Alai Ale Al ha'Aretz ha'Zos v'Hishchisah" - when did Hash-m tell him this?
Answer: He heard "Ki Ma'as ha'Am ha'Zeh Es Mei ha'Shilu'ach ha'Holechim Le'at u'Mesos Es Retzin u'Ven Remalyahu... (Hash-m Ma'aleh Aleihem... Melech Ashur)."
(Rav Yosef): I would not have known the meaning of the verse without the Targum (translation). Because the nation despised the kingship of Beis David, which led them gently, and preferred Retzin (the king of Aram) and Ben Remalyah (king of the 10 Shevatim)...
(R. Yochanan): "Me'eras Hash-m b'Veis Rasha" refers to Pekach Ben Remalyah, who would eat 40 Sa'im (about 500 liters) of birds for dessert;
"U'Nve Tzadikim Yevarech" refers to Chizkiyah, whose entire meal was a Litra of vegetables.
WHY SANCHERIV WAS WIPED OUT
Question: Since it was prophesized that Sancheriv would conquer them, why was he punished?
Answer: The prophecy was that he would conquer the 10 Shevatim. Sancheriv wanted to conquer also Yerushalayim.
(R. Elazar bar Berechyah): "Ki Lo Mu'af la'Asher Mutzak Lah" - when Sancheriv came upon Yerushalayim, Yeshayah told him that the nation (Yehudah) that wearies itself in Torah will not fall to its oppressor.
Question: What does it mean "ka'Es Rishon Hekal... veha'Acharonim Hichbid Derech Yam"?
Answer: The fate of the first ones (the 10 Shevatim) who lightened (cast off) the yoke of is not like the latter ones (Yehudah), who accepted a heavy yoke. They are worthy of miracles like those who passed through Yam Suf and walked across the (dried up) Yarden (when Bnei Yisrael entered Eretz Yisrael).
If Sancheriv will renounce his intention to attack Yerushalayim, fine. If not, I will make him the scorn of the nations.
Question: "Acharei ha'Devarim veha'Emes Ba Sancheriv..." - is this proper reward for Chizkiyah?!
Answer (Ravina): It means 'after Hash-m (whose seal is Emes) swore to bring Sancheriv';
Hash-m reasoned 'if I offer Chizkiyah to deliver Sancheriv into his hands, he will refuse. He wants neither the threat nor the victory. Therefore, I will not ask him;
(R. Yochanan): "Nishba Hash-m... Lishbor Ashur b'Artzi v'Al Harei Avusenu" - Hash-m swore that Sancheriv and his army will come and (die, and their corpses will) be an Avus (feeding trough) for (the animals of) Chizkiyah and his followers.
(R. Yitzchak Nafcha): "...V'Chubal Ol Mipnei Shemen" - the yoke of Sancheriv was broken by the oil that Chizkiyah burned in Batei Medrash to enable Yisraelim to learn at night;
He stuck a sword at the entrance of the Beis Medrash and declared that anyone who will not learn will be stabbed.
They checked all of Eretz Yisrael and did not find an ignoramus. They checked all of Yehudah and did not find a boy, girl, man or woman who was not fluent in the laws of Tum'ah and Taharah.
Regarding this generation it says "...Elef Gefen b'Elef Kesef la'Shamir v'Shayis" (very valuable property will be left uncultivated, for everyone pursues learning).
"V'Usaf Shelalchem..." - Yeshayah told Yisrael to take the booty (of the dead invaders).
Yisrael: Does everyone take for himself, or do we divide it equally? (Alternatively - may we benefit from it, or must we give it away, for some of it was stolen from the 10 Shevatim?)
Yeshayah: "Osef he'Chasil" - take as locusts do (each for itself).
Yisrael: Some of it was stolen from the 10 Shevatim!
Yeshayah: "K'Mashak Gevim Shokek Bo" - just like water that flows into a Mikveh is Metaher a person, if money of Yisrael falls to Nochrim, it is permitted to one who gets it from them.
(Rav Huna): Sancheriv made 10 journeys on the day he came to attach Yerushalayim - "Ba Al Ayas...."
Question: The verse lists 12 places!
Answer: "Tzahali Kolech Bas Galim" was not a journey. Rather, Yeshayah told Bas Galim (Yisrael, who descend from the Avos who did Mitzvos as great as Galim (waves of the sea)) to pray;
Also, "Hakshivi Layshah" was not a journey. Rather, he told Yisrael not to fear Sancheriv, rather, from Nebuchadnetzar, who is compared to a Layish (lion) - "Alah Arye mi'Subcho."