[93a - 53 lines; 93b - 59 lines]
1)[line 1]מלאכי השרתMAL'ACHEI HA'SHARES- ministering angels
2)[line 2]"ענה ואמר, הא אנא חזה גוברין ארבעה שְׁרַיִין מהלכין בגוא נורא, וחבל לא איתי בהון; וְרֵוֵהּ די רביעאה דָּמֵה לבר אלהין""ANEH V'AMAR, HA ANA CHAZEH GUVERIN ARBE'AH SHERAYIN MAH'LECHIN B'GO NURA, VA'CHAVAL LO ISAI BEHON; V'REVEH DI REVI'A'AH DAMEH L'VAR ELAHIN"- "He answered and he said, 'Behold, I see four unbound men walking in the midst of the fire, and there is no wound upon them, and the appearance of the fourth is like an angel" (Daniel 3:25). Nevuchadnetzar's reference to the angel as "the fourth one" implies that the three righteous men, Chanayah, Misha'el, and Azaryah were more important than the angel (RASHI, MAHARSHA).
3)[line 7]וטפחו לשונאיהןV'TAFCHU L'SON'EIHEN- and slapped their enemies (a euphemism for the Jewish people)
4)[line 9]משתחויםMISHTACHAVIM- bow down
5)[line 9]לצלםL'TZELEM- to a graven image
6)[line 10]בושת הפניםBOSHES HA'PANIM- embarrassment
7)[line 12]"אמרתי אעלה בתמר אוחזה בסנסניו""AMARTI E'ELEH B'TAMAR, OCHAZAH B'SANSINAV"- "I said I would be exalted through the palm tree; I take hold of the branches" (Shir ha'Shirim 7:9). Yisrael is compared to a palm tree: just as the palm has only one heart, so Israel has only one heart, which is bound to its Father in Heaven (Sukah 45b, as cited by Rashi).
8)[line 14]סנסןSANSAN- branch
9)[line 15]"ראיתי הלילה והנה איש רוכב על סוס אדום, והוא עומד בין ההדסים אשר במצולה""RA'ISI HA'LAILAH V'HINEI ISH ROCHEV AL SUS ADOM, V'HU OMED BEIN HA'HADASIM ASHER BA'METZULAH"- "I saw in the night, and behold a man was riding on a red horse, and he was standing among the myrtles that were in the watery depths" (Zecharyah 1:8).
10)[line 18]להפוךLA'HAFOCH- to overturn
11)[line 19]ללילהL'LAILAH- into night. HaSh-m wanted to destroy the world because the Jews were submitting to Nevuchadnetzar's command to bow to the idol (RASHI).
12)[line 19]רוכבROCHEV- riding
13)[line 20]"ה' איש מלחמה; ה' שמו""HASH-M ISH MILCHAMAH; HASH-M SHEMO"- "HaSh-m is a man of war; HaSh-m is His name" (Shemos 15:3).
14)[line 22]לדםL'DAM- into blood
15)[line 22]נתקררה דעתוNISKARERAH DA'ATO- He was appeased. When HaSh-m saw that Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah were willing to die rather than worship the idol, He was appeased and did not destroy the world.
16)[line 22]ההדסיםHA'HADASIM- the myrtles
17)[line 23]בבלBAVEL- Babylon, the ancient capital of Babylonia. Now in ruins, it lies on the Euphrates River, 55 miles south of Baghdad.
18)[line 23]"האומר לצולה חֳרָבִי; ונהרותיך אוביש""HA'OMER LA'TZULAH CHARAVI; V'NAHAROSAYICH OVISH"- "The One who says to the watery depths: You will become dry, and your rivers I will dry up" (Yeshayah 44:27). HaSh-m portends the destruction of Bavel, referred to as "the watery depths" because it lies in the lowlands between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and is constantly watered by them.
19)[line 24]רוגזROGEZ- anger
20)[line 24]שרוקיםSERUKIM- colored
21)[line 25]סוסיא חיוראSUSYA CHIVRA- a white horse
22)[line 25]מעלי לחלמאMA'ALI L'CHALMA- is good for a dream. Seeing a white horse in a dream is a favorable omen. (Since seeing a white horse is a good omen in a prophecy, it is also a good omen in a dream, because a dream is 1/60 of prophecy (Berachos 57b).)
23)[line 25]ורבנןV'RABANAN- and the Sages, a reference to Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah
24)[line 25]להיכן אזלוL'HEICHAN AZLU- to where did they go? There is no other mention of Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah anywhere in Tanach after they were thrown into the furnace. Since they were so highly regarded, one would have thought that Nevuchadnetzar would have promoted them to even higher rank after such a miraculous display of Divine favor (MAHARSHA).
25)[line 25]בעין הרע מתוB'AYIN HA'RA MESU- they died because of the evil eye
26)[line 25]ברוק טבעוB'ROK TAV'U- in spit they drowned. (a) In the pool of spit of the Nochrim who scorned the Jews who had succumbed to Nevuchadnetzar's threats. The enormous amount of spit they heaped upon the disloyal Jews drowned Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah. (RASHI) (b) Others learn that they died through the terrible humiliation of their fellow Jews at the reproach of the Nochrim. The humiliation devastated them and they died (MAHARSHA).
27)[line 27]"שמע נא יהושע הכהן הגדול אתה ורעיך היושבים לפניך כי אנשי מופת המה""SHEMA NA YEHOSHUA HA'KOHEN HA'GADOL ATAH V'RE'ECHA HA'YOSHVIM LEFANECHA KI ANSHEI MOFES HEMAH"- "Hear now, Yehoshua the High Priest, you and your friends who sit before you, for they are men of miracles" (Zecharyah 3:8). This verse implies that Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah returned to Eretz Yisrael, for they "sit before" Yehoshua the Kohen Gadol.
28)[line 29]למכרא נהרא רבא בטבריאL'MICHRA NEHARA RABA B'TEVERYA- to dig a great river in Tiberias; alt. Girsa NEHARA RABA B'TURA - a great river at the mountain (RASHI). This task was specially designed so that Daniel would be absent from the capital until things returned to normal (YAD RAMAH).
29)[line 29]לאתויי ביזרא דאספסתאLA'ASUYEI BIZRA D'ASPASTA- To bring seed of Aspasta, any plant especially adapted for use as animal fodder.
30)[line 30]לאתויי חזירי דאלכסנדריא של מצריםLA'ASUYEI CHAZIREI D'ALEXANDRIA SHEL MITZRAYIM- to bring [to Bavel] pigs of [the city] Alexandria of Egypt
31)[line 31]האם שלהHA'EM SHELAH- her womb
32)[line 31]תלדSELED- give birth
33)[line 31]זוטרי אייתיZUTREI AISEI- small ones they brought out
34)[line 32]עצהEITZAH- counsel
35)[line 32]ניזילNEZIL- let him go away
36)[line 33]לימרוLEMRU- they will say
37)[line 33]איתנצלISNATZEL- he was saved
38)[line 33]דלא ליקיים ביD'LO LI'KAYEM BI- so that it not be fulfilled in me
39)[line 33]"פסילי אלוהיהם תשרפון באש""PESILEI ELOHEIHEM TISREFUN BA'ESH"- "The engraved images of their gods shall you burn with fire" (Devarim 7:25). Nevuchadnetzar worshiped Daniel as a deity. Daniel was worried that if he would be thrown in the furnace upon refusing to bow before the idol, he would be consumed in the fire in keeping with what the Torah says about other deities being thrown to the flames.
40)[line 34]"בֵּאדַיִן מַלְכָּא נְבוּכַדְנֶצַּר נְפַל עַל אַנְפּוֹהִי, וּלְדָנִיֵּאל סְגִד; [וּמִנְחָה וְנִיחֹחִין אֲמַר לְנַסָּכָה לֵהּ]""BEDAYIN MALKA NEVUCHADNETZAR NEFAL AL ANPOHI, UL'DANIEL SEGID; [U'MINCHAH V'NICHOCHIN AMAR L'NASACHA LEI]" - "Then King Nevuchadnetzar fell on his face and prostrated himself before Daniel [and with a Minchah sacrifice and a libation offering he wished to exalt him]" (Daniel 2:46) (NEVUCHADNETZAR IS ASTOUNDED BY DANIEL)
(a)After Daniel had successfully reconstructed Nevuchadnetzar's dream and interpreted it, the king, unable to constrain himself, fell on his face before Daniel and wanted to offer sacrifices to him. He then went on to acknowledge the greatness of HaSh-m, who he described as the G-d of gods and the Master of kings, who revealed the secrets that Daniel was able to then pass on to him.
(b)Nevuchadnetzar showered Daniel with gifts and appointed him viceroy over all of Bavel, and as chief advisor over all of the sages of Bavel as well. Before Daniel took up his post, he put in a request for his three friends ("Shadrach, Meishach, and Aved Nego") to be given major positions as well. His request was granted, and they became charges-d'affairs of Bavel, while Daniel sat permanently at the gate of the king.
41)[line 34]קלייהKALYEH- he burned
42)[line 34]דסגידD'SAGID- that he bowed down
43)[line 35]"כה אמר ה' צ-בקות א-לקי ישראל אל אחאב בן קוליה ואל צדקיהו בן מעשיה הַנִּבְּאִים לכם בשמי שקר, הנני נתן אתם ביד נבוכדראצר מלך בכל וְהִכָּם לעיניכם""KO AMAR HASH-M TZEVA-KOS EL-KEI YISRAEL EL ACH'AV BEN KOLAYAH V'EL TZIDKIYAH BEN MA'ASEYAH HA'NIBE'IM LACHEM BI'SHEMI SHAKER; HINENI NOSEIN OSAM B'YAD NEVUCHADRETZAR MELECH BAVEL, V'HIKAM L'EINECHEM"- "So said HaSh-m, the G-d of Yisrael, with regard to Ach'av ben Kolayah and Tzidkiyah ben Ma'aseyah who are prophesying to you lies in My name: 'Behold I will give them over into the hand of Nevuchadretzar, King of Bavel, and he will strike them down before your eyes'" (Yirmeyahu 29:21).
44)[line 36]"וְלֻקַּח מהם קללה לכל גלות יהודה אשר בבבל לאמר, ישמך ה' כצדקיהו וכאחב אשר קָלָם מלך בבל באש""V'LUKACH ME'HEM KELALAH L'CHOL GALUS YEHUDAH ASHER B'VAVEL LEIMOR, 'YESIMCHA HASH-M K'TZIDKIYAHU UCH'ECHAV ASHER KALAM MELECH BAVEL BA'ESH'"- "And a curse will be derived from them for all the exiles of Yehudah who are in Bavel saying, 'May HaSh-m make you like Tzidkiyahu and Ach'av, whom the King of Bavel roasted in fire'" (Yirmeyahu 29:22).
45)[line 37]שרפםSERAFAM- he burned them
46)[line 38]קלםKALAM- he scorched
47)[line 38]כקליותK'KELAYOS- like roasted kernels of grain
48)[line 38]"יען אשר עשו נבלה בישראל וינאפו את נשי רעיהם וידברו דבר בשמי שקר אשר לוא צויתם ואנוכי היודע ועד נאום ה'""YA'AN ASHER ASU NEVALAH B'YISRAEL, V'YENA'AFU ES NESHEI RE'EIHEM, VA'YEDABRU DAVAR BI'SHEMI SHEKER ASHER LO TZIVISIM, V'ANOCHI HA'YODE'A VA'ED, NE'UM HASH-M" - "Because they committed a disgusting thing in Yisrael, by committing adultery with their neighbor's wives, and they said over in My name falsehood which I never commanded them, and I am the One Who knows and Who bears witness" (Yirmeyahu 29:23) (THE WICKED FALSE PROPHETS IN THE DAYS OF YIRMEYAHU)
(a)This verse refers to two wicked men, Ach'av ben Kolayah and Tzidkiyahu ben Ma'aseyah, who pretended to be doctors, who would visit sick Babylonian women with whom they would then be intimate. Others explain that one of them would tend to a Jewish woman and inform her that he had had a vision in which his friend would be intimate with her and that she would bear a child who would be a prophet, and on the next occasion, his friend would do the same on his behalf.
(b)When pregnant women would consult one of these "prophets" about the destiny of the child, he would answer that it is "a boy," but then he would inform the neighbors that it would be a girl. If it was a boy, the happy mother would sing his praises to all her neighbors; whereas if it was a girl, the neighbors would tell the mother that this was what he had told them, adding that he did not want to tell her in order not to upset her.
(c)All went well for them until they approached the princess of Bavel, the daughter of Nevuchadnetzar with their proposition. Ach'av said, "So says HaSh-m: Listen to Tzidkiyah," while Tzidkiyah instructed her to listen to Ach'av.
(d)When she went and told her father what they had said, he replied that as far as he was concerned, the G-d of Yisrael hates adultery, and that the next time they approached her with their advances, she should send them to him.
(e)When they told him that they were merely repeating what their G-d had told them, Nevuchadnetzar replied that he had asked Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah, who had told him that adultery was strictly forbidden. They then insisted that they too were prophets, no less than the three Tzadikim, whereupon the king challenged them to undergo the same test (in a fiery furnace) just as Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah had done. They replied that Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah were three, while they were only two (whose combined merits are insufficient to merit such a great miracle). The king gave them the right to choose a third person to be thrown into the furnace together with them. Convinced that on his merit they would emerge unscathed, they picked Yehoshua the Kohen Gadol, who was a great Tzadik. The three of them were thrown into the fire. Yehoshua, the great Tzadik, emerged unscathed ("a firebrand saved from the fire"); only his clothes were scorched. The other two, on the other hand, were roasted to a cinder.
49)[line 40]שונאSONEI- He hates
50)[line 41]זימהZIMAH- immorality
51)[line 41]לגבךL'GABACH- to you
52)[line 41]שדרינהו לגבאיSHADRINHU L'GABAI- send them to me
53)[line 41]מאן אמר לכוןMAN AMAR LECHON- who told this to you?
54)[line 42]שאלתינהוSHE'ALTINHU- I asked them
55)[line 43]נביאי כוותייהוNEVI'EI KEVASAIHU- [we too are] prophets like you
56)[line 44]לדידהוL'DIDHU- to them
57)[line 44]בעינאBA'INA- I want
58)[line 44]דאיבדקינכוD'IVDEKINCHU- that I will test you
59)[line 45]אינון תלתאINUN TELASA- they were three
60)[line 45]ואנן תריןV'ANAN TREI- and we are [only] two
61)[line 45]בחרוBECHARU- choose
62)[line 46]דנפישD'NAFISH- for it is a lot
63)[line 46]ומגנא עלןU'MEGANA ALAN- and it will protect us
64)[line 46]אחתיוהוACHSEYUHU- they brought them down
65)[line 46]שדינהוSHADINHU- they cast them
66)[line 46]איקלוIKLU- they were scorched
67)[line 46]איחרוכי מאניהICHRUCHEI MANEI- his garments were singed
68)[line 46]"ויראני את יהושע הכהן הגדול עומד לפני מלאך ה', והשטן עומד על ימינו לשטנו""VA'YAR'ENI ES YEHOSHUA HA'KOHEN HA'GADOL OMED LIFNEI MAL'ACH HASH-M, VEHA'SATAN OMED AL YEMINO L'SITNO"- "And He showed me (Zecharyah) Yehoshua the Kohen Gadol standing before the angel of HaSh-m, and the Satan was standing on his right to incriminate him" (Zecharyah 3:1).
69)[line 48]אהניא בך פורתא נוראAHANYA BACH PURTA- why did the flame have a small effect on you?
70)[line 49]ולא אתיהיב רשותא לנוראV'LO ISYAHIV RESHUSA LA'NURA- and permission was not granted to the fire (by HaSh-m to have any effect)
71)[line 49]היינו דאמרי אינשיHAINU D'AMREI INSHEI- that is why people say (i.e. it is a common expression)
72)[line 49]תרי אודי יבישי וחד רטיבא אוקדן יבישי לרטיבאTREI ODEI YEVISHEI V'CHAD RETIVA OKDAN YEVESHEI L'RETIVA- when there are two dry items and one wet item, the two dry items will ignite the wet item
73)[line 50]איענשI'ANASH- he was punished
74)[line 50]שאינן הגונותSHE'EINAN HAGUNOS- that were not fit (i.e. they married women unfit for marrying Kohanim)
75)[line 50]ולא מיחהV'LO MICHAH- and he did not protest
76)[line 51]צואיםTZO'IM- soiled
77)[line 51]"ויאמר ה' אל השטן, יגער ה' בך השטן, ויגער ה' בך [הבוחר בירושלים; הלוא זה אוד מצל מאש]""VA'YOMER HASH-M EL HA'SATAN, 'YIG'AR HASH-M BECHA [HA'SATAN, V'YIG'AR HASH-M BECHA HA'BOCHER BI'YERUSHALAYIM; HALO ZEH UD MUTZAL ME'ESH]'"- "And HaSh-m said to the Satan, 'May HaSh-m scold you, Satan, and may HaSh-m, who chooses Yerushalayim, scold you! Is this man not a firebrand who was saved from the fire!'" (Zecharyah 3:2) - Yehoshua Kohen Gadol, a righteous man, had served as Kohen Gadol at the time of the destruction of the first Beis ha'Mikdash. The prophet Zecharyah relates that the Satan came to accuse Yehoshua for not rebuking his sons sufficiently for having married gentile women (as was common during his time), as recorded in the Book of Ezra. HaSh-m, however stopped the Satan from making his accusation, since Yehoshua Kohen Gadol had been saved from the fiery furnace when he was thrown in with the wicked false prophets, Ach'av ben Kolayah and Tzidkiyahu ben Ma'aseyah. (See above, entry #48.)
78)[line 51]"ויהושע היה לבש בגדים צואים [ועומד לפני המלאך]""VI'YEHOSHUA HAYAH LAVUSH BEGADIM TZO'IM, V'OMED LIFNEI HA'MAL'ACH" - "And Yehoshua was dressed in soiled clothing as he stood before the angel" (Zecharyah 3:3) (YEHOSHUA KOHEN GADOL IS EXONERATED)
(a)The "soiled clothing" which Yehoshua, the Kohen Gadol, was wearing was a reference to the sin of not rebuking his sons as he should have (see previous entry).
(b)The angel standing before Yehoshua Kohen Gadol instructed other angels to remove his soiled clothes and to dress him in clean clothes. This was a metaphor for separating Yehoshua's sons from their foreign wives, and this would be a merit for their righteous father.
(c)Zecharyah then prayed that HaSh-m should reward Yehoshua further and place a pure turban on his head (an allusion to the return of the Kehunah to him and to his descendents). After Zecharyah's prayer was accepted, the angel informed Yehoshua that if he would follow HaSh-m's ways and guard His charge, keep the Kohanim in check and look after the Beis ha'Mikdash, HaSh-m would give him and his children their full reward in the World to Come (that they should merit to walk among the angels who never sit down).
79)[line 53]"[ותאמר] שש השעורים האלה נתן לי [כי אמר אלי אל תבואי ריקם אל חמותך]""[VATOMER,] 'SHESH HA'SE'ORIM HA'ELEH NASAN LI, [KI AMAR ELAI: AL TAVO'I REIKAM EL CHAMOSECH]'" - "[And she said,] 'These six barley-grains he gave to me, [for he said to me: Do not come empty-handed to your mother-in-law]'" (Ruth 3:17) (BOAZ ALLUDES TO RUTH'S GREAT DESTINY)
(a)When Boaz awoke in the middle of the night, he was startled to find a woman lying at his feet. Ruth identified herself and hinted that she was available to him for Yibum, since he was a close relative of her deceased husband, Machlon. Boaz promptly blessed her for remaining loyal to her mother-in-law, and even more so for not giving herself over to any of the numerous young men (all of whom were attracted by her beauty) as one might have expected of a woman in her situation, and he praised her for her righteousness. He pointed out to her, however, that he was only a cousin of her deceased husband, and that there was an uncle (named Tov) who was a closer relative and who thus had the first right to marry her and take possession of her property. He promised her, however, that he would settle the issue the very next morning.
(b)After Boaz swore to his Yetzer ha'Ra that he would not touch her until they were married, he told her to remain there for the night.
(c)He sent her home at the break of dawn so that nobody would recognize her and suspect her of frivolous behavior. He gave her six barley-grains and sent her on her way. This cannot mean that he gave her six Se'ah-measures of barley, since such an amount would have been far too heavy for a woman to carry back to town on her own. It must mean that he literally gave her six single grains. The Gemara explains that these six grains were an allusion to the six Tzadikim who were destined to descend from her, each of whom would be blessed with six blessings (see Insights): David, Mashi'ach, Daniel, Chananyah, Mishael, and Azaryah. (Other sources replace Mashi'ach and Daniel with Chizkiyahu and Yoshiyahu, and yet other sources explain that the six grains were an allusion that she would be blessed with a single descendant (Mashi'ach) who would be blessed with six qualities: "a spirit of wisdom and understanding, a spirit of counsel and strength, a spirit of knowledge and the fear of HaSh-m" (Yeshayah 11:2).)
80)[line 53]שעוריםSE'ORIM- barley kernels
81)[line 1]שש סאיןSHESH SE'IN - six Se'in of barley seeds (DRY MEASURES(
(a)The following is a list of measures of volume used in the Mishnah and Gemara:
1.1 Kor (= 1 Chomer) = 30 Se'in
2.1 Lesech = 15 Se'in
3.1 Eifah = 3 Se'in
4.1 Se'ah = 6 Kabin
5.1 Tarkav (= Trei v'Kav, or 3 Kabin) = 12 Lugin
6.1 Kav = 4 Lugin
7.1 Log (= 1 Rova) = 4 Revi'iyos = 6 Beitzim
8.1 Beitzah = 2 or 3 k'Zeisim, according to the varying opinions
(b)In modern-day measures, the k'Zayis is approximately 0.025, 0.0288 or 0.05 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions. Thus, 1 Se'ah = 7.2, 8.29 or 14.4 liters, according to the various opinions.
82)[line 1]ליטולLITOL- to take
83)[line 2]רמז רמז להREMEZ RAMAZ LAH- he hinted to her a hint. Boaz gave Ruth six barley kernels, not as an ordinary gift but for a symbolic purpose. The expression "he measured" cannot refer to individual barley kernels, because such kernels are simply counted and not measured. The Gemara means that in addition to the six measures of barley mentioned in the earlier verse, Boaz gave to Ruth six individual barley kernels as well. (See MAHARSHA, and see Insights.)
84)[line 2]שעתידיןSHE'ASIDIN- that in the future
85)[line 3]לצאת ממנהLA'TZES MIMENAH- to come forth from her (i.e. they will descend from her offspring)
86)[line 5]"ויען אחד מהנערים ויאמר, הנה ראיתי בן לישי בית הלחמי, יודע נגן וגבור חיל ואיש מלחמה ונבון דבר ואיש תואר; וה' עמו""VA'YA'AN ECHAD MEHA'NE'ARIM VA'YOMER: HINEI RA'ISI BEN L'YISHAI BEIS HA'LACHMI, YODE'A NAGEN V'GIBOR CHAYIL V'ISH MILCHAMAH U'NEVON DAVAR V'ISH TO'AR; VA'SH-M IMO" - "And one of the boys replied and said: Behold I saw one of the sons of Yishai from Beis Lechem, who knows how to play the harp, he is a mighty man of valor, a man of war, he understands a matter, and he is a man of handsomeness; and HaSh-m is with him" (Shmuel I 16:18) (DAVID IS SUMMONED TO SERVE SHA'UL)
(a)After Shmuel anointed David as king, the Spirit of HaSh-m enveloped him. At the same moment, the Spirit of HaSh-m left Shaul and he was overcome by an evil spirit that left him constantly depressed. His servants advised him to find a competent harpist to play before him whenever he was beset by the evil spirit, which would relieve him of his depression.
(b)Shaul followed their advice and asked them to find someone who played the harp well and to bring him before him.
(c)One of the advisors suggested David, as described in the above verse. The Chachamim explain that the idea was suggested by Do'eg ha'Edomi, who was an outstanding Talmid Chacham but also an evil man (who hated David and was determined to bring him down). Indeed, from Do'eg's lengthy description of David, the Chachamim infer that his intention was to cause Shaul to become jealous of David (by means of an Ayin ha'Ra).
(d)Shaul immediately sent messengers to Yishai to request that he sent him David, who tended Yishai's sheep. Yishai promptly complied. David stood before Shaul and served him. Shaul loved him dearly and appointed him as his armor-bearer.
87)[line 10]לשון הרעLASHON HA'RA
(a)The Torah forbids Lashon ha'Ra, making derogatory statements about others, whether they are true or not (Vayikra 19:16, see Erchin 16a et seq., the commentaries to Erchin ibid. and Chofetz Chayim by Rav Yisroel Meir ha'Kohen mi'Radin)
(b)The Gemara here relates that Do'eg praised David to make Shaul jealous of him (RASHI).
88)[line 10]יודע נגןYODE'A NAGEN- he knows how to ask
89)[line 11]גבורGIBOR- (lit. strong) he knows how to answer
90)[line 11]איש מלחמהISH MILCHAMAH- (lit. a man of war) he can debate in Torah matters
91)[line 13]ואיש תוארV'ISH TO'AR- (lit. a sightly man) he brings proof for what he says
92)[line 14]נבוןNAVON- he understands one matter by means of another matter
93)[line 14]וה' עמוVA'SH-M IMO- (lit. and HaSh-m is with him) the Halachah always follows his opinion
94)[line 16]כמוהוKAMOHU- is like him
95)[line 17]מלתא דבדידיה נמי לא הוה ביהMILSA DEV'DIDEI NAMI LO HAVAH BEI- a thing which also he did not have in him (i.e. the Halachah did not always follow Shaul's opinion as it did David's)
96)[line 18]חלש דעתיהCHALASH DA'ATEI- he became upset or dejected
97)[line 18]ואיקניא ביהV'IKANYA BEI- and he (Shaul) became jealous of him (David)
98)[line 19]"[ושאול לכד המלוכה על ישראל וילחם סביב בכל אויביו במואב ובבני עמון ובאדום ובמלכי צובה ובפלשתים] ובכל אשר יפנה ירשיע""V'SHAUL LACHAD HA'MELUCHAH AL YISRAEL, VA'YILACHEM SAVIV B'CHOL OYEVAV, B'MO'AV UVI'VENEI AMON UV'EDOM UV'MALCHEI TZOVAH UVA'PELISHTIM,] UV'CHOL ASHER YIFNEH YARSHI'A"- "And Shaul consolidated his kingdom over Yisrael. He waged war against all his enemies all around, with Mo'av, and with the sons of Amon, and with Edom, and with the kings of Tzovah and the Pelishtim,] and wherever he turned, he wrought havoc" (Shmuel I 14:47) - This verse describes Shaul's consolidation of his kingdom. The Gemara expounds this verse to mean that Shaul did not merit to have the Halachah follow his rulings.
99)[line 21]מיוחד שבנעריםMEYUCHAD SHEB'NE'ARIM- unique among the youths (the outstanding one of the servants)
100)[line 22]"ושם איש מעבדי שאול ביום ההוא נעצר לפני ה' ושמו דואג האדומי אביר הרועים אשר לשאול""V'SHAM ISH ME'AVDEI SHAUL BA'YOM HA'HU, NE'ETZAR LIFNEI HASH-M, U'SHEMO DO'EG HA'ADOMI, ABIR HA'RO'IM ASHER L'SHA'UL" - "And there, on that day, was a man from the servants of Shaul, who had hid himself away (to study Torah) before HaSh-m, and his name was Do'eg ha'Edomi, the chief shepherd of [the men of] Shaul" (Shmuel I 21:8) (DOEG'S SLANDER)
(a)Do'eg ha'Edomi was an erudite Torah scholar who was head of Shaul's Beis Din in Nov, the town of Kohanim.
(b)When David arrived in Nov in his escape from Shaul, who sought to kill him, he pretended that he had been sent there on a secret mission by the king.
(c)When David told Achimelech, the Kohen Gadol, that he had no weapon because Shaul had sent him off quickly, the latter responded by offering David the sword of Golyas, which David gladly accepted. David left Nov and arrived safely in the territory of Achish, the king of Gas.
(d)Do'eg saw and heard the entire episode, and he reported it to Shaul ha'Melech, omitting the fact that Achimelech had been unaware that David was a fugitive. Shaul, under the impression that Achimelech had rebelled against him by supporting David, ordered Do'eg to wipe out the entire city of Nov. Eighty families of Kohanim were killed. This was a terrible sin for which Shaul ha'Melech was destined to pay with his life.
101)[line 25]"ונחה עליו רוח ה' רוח חכמה ובינה רוח עצה וגבורה רוח דעת ויראת ה'""V'NACHAH ALAV RU'ACH HASH-M, CHOCHMAH U'VINAH, RU'ACH ETZAH U'GEVURAH, RU'ACH DA'AS V'YIRAS HASH-M"- "And the spirit of HaSh-m will rest upon him, a spirit of wisdom and insight, a spirit of counsel and strength, a spirit of understanding and fear of HaSh-m" (Yeshayah 11:2) - The Mashi'ach will be blessed with these six qualities: the spirit of wisdom, insight, counsel, strength, understanding, and fear of HaSh-m (RASHI).
102)[line 28]שהטעינוSHE'HIT'INU- that He loaded him
103)[line 28]כרחייםKA'RECHAYIM- like a flour mill. A flour mill is often used as a metaphor for the heavy burden a person is forced to bear (see Kidushin 29b). The Mashi'ach is compared to a flour mill because just as the flour mill works and produces flour, the Mashi'ach will work and produce for the Jewish people the redemption (MAHARSHA).
104)[line 29]דמורח ודאיןD'MORACH V'DA'IN- he sniffs and judges. He can sense which of the litigants is guilty without actually having to weigh the evidence (RASHI).
105)[line 31]בר כוזיבאBEN KOZIVA (BAR KOCHVA)
(a)At the time of the Churban of the second Beis ha'Mikdash (70 CE), Yerushalayim was destroyed and razed to the ground. The Roman Tenth Legion was garrisoned there following its destruction. Emperor Hadrian (who reigned from 117 - 138 CE) founded a new pagan city on the site of Yerushalayim, naming it Aelia Capitolina; Aelia in honor of his own name Publius Aelius Hadrianus, and Capitolina in honor of Jupiter, whose temple in Rome was on the Capitolene hill. At the site of the Beis ha'Mikdash, he erected a new temple to Jupiter. According to the Roman historian Dio Cassius, this was the cause of the revolt of Bar Kochva (132 - 135 CE). However, this could have not been the main cause of the revolt, since no reference to it is made in the Jewish sources. There are references to a number of commandments whose observance was prohibited by the Romans; e.g. Shabbos, circumcision, family purity and Keri'as Shema. All of these decrees brought on the revolt of Bar Kochva (in about 3883/123 CE), which lasted for nine years.
(b)At first the revolt began when Jews refused to yield to the decrees. They hid in caves and other secret places. (The Chazan Caves, one of these hideouts, can be visited today.) When discovered and raided by the Romans they resisted with great courage and often with great success. Before long, the attacked became attackers, striking out at the Roman troops. At this time, a leader appeared who was a military genius, Shimon bar Koziva. Rebbi Akiva felt that he was great enough to be Mashi'ach and called him Bar Kochva, "son of the star," an allusion to the verse, "Darach Kochav mi'Yakov," "A star shall go forth from Yakov" (Bamidbar 24:17). The "star" of the verse is an allusion to the Mashi'ach.
(c)Bar Kochva succeeded in organizing nets of resistance into an army and gradually pushed the Roman troops out of one position after another. The Tenth Legion was evacuated and withdrew to Caesarea. At this point a period of independent Jewish sovereignty began in Eretz Yisrael, which the Gemara refers to as the Kingdom of Bar Koziva, which lasted for two and a half years (Sanhedrin 97b). Jews all over the world, and other nations, too, were showing evidence of great hostility to the Romans.
(d)Sixty years earlier, at the time of the Churban, the Romans required three legions for the conquest of Yerushalayim. At the time of Bar Kochva, the Romans brought in six legions, besides the legions that were already there, and further detachments of cavalry and infantry. [It seems that one of the reasons for this greater need of military strength was that the Jews were unified, in contrast to the times of the Churban when the Jews were fragmented into opposing groups and sects - Editors' note.]
(e)Despite the enormous size of their army, the Romans were unwilling to face Bar Kochva's troops in full battle. They proceeded slowly, attacking isolated localities and interfering with food supplies. When the Twenty-second Legion advanced too deeply and too quickly into Jewish territory, it was totally destroyed. It was never reconstituted, and forever after was omitted from the list of units in the Roman army.
(f)After approximately twelve months of warfare, the Romans started to advance on the Jewish positions. Bar Kochva and his troops withdrew to Beisar, a large city to the southwest of Yerushalayim, where the fighting continued for some three and a half years. Eventually, Bar Kochva accepted a slanderous accusation against his uncle, the sage Rebbi Elazar ha'Moda'i, who had been praying all along for the salvation of Beisar, and killed him in a fit of rage. Afterwards, Beisar fell to the Romans, and Bar Kochva was slain (YERUSHALMI Ta'anis 4:5).
(g)The blood of the men, women and children killed is said to have flowed into the Mediterranean Sea, which was a distance of one Mil away (Gitin 57a; according to Eichah Rabah 2:4 four Mil; alt. 40 Mil). The Gemara (ibid.) records that the Nochrim in the neighboring towns did not need to fertilize their vineyards for seven years due to the quantity of blood that flowed into the ground.
(h)At first, the Roman Government did not let the Jews bury the bodies. One emperor is said to have fenced in his vineyard with the dead bodies (Eichah Rabah 2:4). After quite some time, the next emperor allowed the bodies to be buried. It was seen as a sign of favor from HaSh-m that the Romans changed their minds, and that the bodies did not decompose before they were buried. The Chachamim established the Berachah of ha'Tov veha'Metiv to commemorate the miracles.
(i)After the revolt was crushed, no Jews were allowed to live in Yerushalayim for 500 years. The rulers killed any Jew who set foot in the city. The fall of the Beis ha'Mikdash sixty-three years earlier triggered the destruction of Yerushalayim; the fall of Beisar triggered the destruction of Eretz Yisrael. Nevertheless, Jews always remained in Eretz Yisrael. (From: History of the Jewish People/From Yavneh to Pumbedisa, Artscroll Publishers, Brooklyn, New York, 1986, by Meir Holder)
106)[line 31]תרתין שנין ופלגאTARTEIN SHENIN U'FALGA- two and a half years
107)[line 33]במשיח כתיב דמורח ודאין נחזי אנןB'MASHI'ACH KESIV D'MORACH V'DA'IN NECHEZEI ANAN- with regard to the Mashi'ach it is written that "he sniffs and judges"; let us see if he (Bar Koziva) can sniff and judge (and determine thereby whether or not he indeed is the Mashi'ach)
108)[line 34]דחזיוהוD'CHAZYUHU- that they saw him
109)[line 34]קטלוהוKATLUHU- they killed him (because they saw he was not the Mashi'ach). He was liable for the death penalty because did not have the ability to "sniff and judge," which is a form of prophetic power, and thus he was considered a false prophet, who is liable for the death penalty. (YAD RAMAH)
110)[line 40]מוםMUM- blemish
111)[line 40]כריבדא דכוסילתאK'RIVDA D'CHUSILTA- like the incision (O.F. pointure) made with a lancet (O.F. flemie, a pointed two-edged surgical knife used to make small cuts and to let blood)
112)[line 41]אונסין את עצמןONSIN ES ATZMO- they would force themselves [and refrain from...]
113)[line 42]השחוקHA'SECHOK- laughter
114)[line 42]השיחהHA'SICHAH- conversion, speech
115)[line 42]השינהHA'SHEINAH- sleep
116)[line 42]ומעמידין את עצמןU'MA'AMIDIN ES ATZMAN- and they would hold themselves back
117)[line 42]בשעה שנצרכין לנקביהםB'SHA'AH SHENITZRACHIN L'NIKVEIHEM- at the time that they needed to relieve themselves
118)[line 42]אימתEMAS- fear of
119)[line 45]סריסיםSARISIM- castrated men. Chananyah, Misha'el and Azaryah were castrated because it was the custom of the kings to castrate male royal attendants so that they should not marry but be devoted exclusively to the service of the king. This opinion disagrees with the earlier opinion that Chananyah, Misha'el, and Azaryah ascended to Eretz Yisrael, married, and had children, and with the opinion of Rebbi Chanina who interprets the word "Sarisim" differently (see next entry) (RASHI).
120)[line 46]שנסתרסה עבודה זרה בימיהםSHE'NISTARSAH AVODAH ZARAH BI'YEMEHEM- that idol worship was cut off in their days. As a result of their refusal to abandon their devotion to HaSh-m and their miraculous deliverance from the fiery furnace and from the lion's den (Daniel Ch. 6), all of the people realized the futility of idolatry (YAD RAMAH). The BEN YEHOYADA explains that had they not been saved, idolatry would have proliferated and Nevuchadnetzar would have brought in other idols to be worshipped.
121)[line 46]"[ענה ואמר הא אנא חזה גוברין ארבעה שריין מהלכין בגוא נורא] וחבל לא איתי בהון [ורוה די רביעאה דמה לבר אלהין]""[ANEH V'AMAR HA ANA CHAZEH GUVRIN ARBE'AH SHERAYIN MAH'LECHIN B'GO NURA] VA'CHAVAL LO ISAI BEHON [V'REVEH DI REVI'A'AH DAMEH L'VAR ELAHIN]"- "[He answered and he said, 'Behold, I see four unbound men walking in the midst of the fire,] and there is no wound upon them, [and the appearance of the fourth is like an angel]" (Daniel 3:25).
122)[line 47]חבלא דנוראCHAVLA D'URA- a wound caused by fire
123)[line 47]"[ומתכנשין אחשדרפניא סגניא ופחותא והדברי מלכא חזין לגבריא אלך די לא שלט נורא בגשמהון ושער ראשהון לא התחרך וסרבליהון לא שנו] וריח נור לא עדת בהון""U'MISKANSHIN ACHASHDARPENAYA, SIGNAYA, U'FACHAVASA, VEHA'DAVREI MALKA CHAZAYAN L'GUVRAYA ILECH DI LO SHELET NURA B'GESHMEHON, U'SE'AR RESH'HON LO HIS'CHARACH, V'SARBALEIHON LO SHENO,] V'REI'ACH NUR LO ADAS BEHON]"- "[And the satraps, the nobles, the governors and the king's ministers saw how the fire had no effect on these men's bodies, and how not a hair on their heads was singed, and how their cloaks remained untouched,] and they had not even absorbed the smell of fire" (Daniel 3:27).
124)[line 49]משתעי קרא בגנותא דצדיקיMISHTA'EI KERA B'GINUSA D'TZADIKEI- does the verse speak about the disgracefulness of the righteous?!
125)[line 50]"... בביתי ובחומותי יד ושם, טוב מבנים ומבנות...""...B'VESI UV'CHOMOSAI YAD VA'SHEM, TOV MI'BANIM UMI'BANOS..."- "[And I will give them] within My house and within my walls a monument and memorial better than sons and daughters..." (Yeshayah 56:5). The verse implies that the subjects of the verse will not be able to have children.
126)[line 53]שנקרא על שמוSHE'NIKRA AL SHEMO- that was called by his name. The Book of Daniel is called by his name, and thus it makes his name eternal. (See BEN YEHOYADA.)
127)[line 53]מכדיMICHDI- let us see
128)[line 54]שהחזיק טובה לעצמוSHE'HECHEZIK TOVAH L'ATZMO- that he took personal credit for himself
129)[line 55]רחמי הוא דקבעיRACHAMEI HU D'KA'BA'I- he was asking for mercy. The difference between David and Nechemyah was that David appealed for Divine mercy, and not for reward, while Nechemyah asked for reward and thus was punished for taking credit for himself (MAHARSHA).
130)[line 56]"והפחות הראשנים אשר לפני הכבידו על העם ויקחו מהם בלחם ויין אחר כסף שקלים ארבעים [גם נעריהם שלטו על העם ואני לא עשיתי כן מפני יראת א-לקים]""VEHA'PACHOS HA'RISHONIM ASHER LEFANAI HICHBIDU AL HA'AM, VA'YIKCHU MEHEM B'LECHEM VA'YAYIN ACHAR KESEF SHEKALIM ARBA'IM, [GAM NA'AREIHEM SHALTU AL HA'AM, VA'ANI LO ASISI CHEN MIPNEI YIR'AS EL-KIM]" - "The governors who preceded me had imposed burdens upon the people, and had taken bread and wine from them, in addition to forty silver Shekels, [and their servants, too, dominated the people. But I did not do that out of the fear of HaSh-m]" (Nechemyah 5:15) (NECHEMYAH'S CARE FOR HIS BRETHEREN)
(a)Nechemyah, also called Zerubavel, was one of the great leaders of his time. He was instrumental in bringing the people back to HaSh-m and molding them into a nation, and in rebuilding the Beis ha'Mikdash.
(b)This verse describes Nechemyah's his efforts on behalf of the poor, who had been exploited by the rich. The leaders before him had forced the people to give their children as slaves and their lands as collateral to pay off their debts, and to pay heavy taxes.
(c)Nechemyah rectified all of this. The wealthy undertook to help the poor, and the heavy taxes were abolished. Nechemyah makes reference to the one hundred and fifty people who ate regularly at his table, in addition to the converts who join him.
131)[line 57]"וראיתי אני דניאל לבדי את המראה והאנשים אשר היו עמי לא ראו את המראה...""V'RA'ISI ANI DANIEL LEVADI ES HA'MAR'EH, VEHA'ANASHIM ASHER HAYU IMI LO RA'U ES HA'MAR'EH, AVAL CHARADAH GEDOLAH NAFLAH ALEIHEM VA'YIVRECHU B'HECHAVEI" - "And I, Daniel alone, saw the vision, but the men who were with me did not see the vision; but a great trembling fell upon them, and they fled into hiding" (Daniel 10:7) (DANIEL'S VISION )
(a)This incident occurred during the third year of Koresh's reign. The Persian king had just withdrawn his permission to the Jews to rebuild the Beis ha'Mikdash. It would be another eighteen years before Daryavesh would allow them to continue.
(b)Broken-hearted over the news, Daniel had fasted and mourned for three weeks. He was standing on the banks of the great River Chidekel on the twenty-fourth of Nisan when he saw the vision of an angel (a reference to Gavriel) wearing linen garments and a jewel-studded belt. The body of the angel resembled dark-blue marble, his face was like lightning, his eyes looked like firebrands, and his arms and legs like the color of tarnished copper, while his voice sounded like a multitude of people.
(c)Only Daniel saw the vision; the men who accompanied him (Chagai, Mal'achi and Zecharyah) did not. They did, however, sense its presence, and they were terror-stricken and fled. This verse shows that Daniel was greater than the three prophets who accompanied him, and all the more so he was greater than Nechemyah.
(d)The angel informed Daniel that his prayers had been answered. He was subsequently shown various visions concerning the current exile in Persia, which was still in its early stages, and that of Greece that was destined to follow.