[63a - 59 lines; 63b - 58 lines]
1)[line 3]הכתוב עשאן כולן עבודה אחתHA'KASUV ASA'AN KULAN AVODAH ACHAS- the verse includes all of them as one [prohibition of] service [to idols]
2)[line 5]שלש השתחואותSHALOSH HISHTACHAVA'OS- three [verses that prohibit] bowing (namely, one in the Aseres ha'Dibros, one in Parshas Mishpatim (Shemos 23:24), and one in Parshas Ki Sisa (Shemos 34:14) - RASHI)
3)[line 6]אחת לכדרכהACHAS LICH'DARKAH- one to [prohibit bowing to an idol] normally worshipped by bowing
4a)[line 11]כדרכה ושלא כדרכהK'DARKAH V'SHE'LO K'DARKAH- [bowing to an idol] normally served in an honorable fashion, but not by bowing
b)[line 12]לשלא כדרכהSHE'LO K'DARKAH- [bowing to an idol] normally served in a dishonorable fashion (such as Pe'or or Markolis)
5)[line 16]לקטלאKETALA- the death penalty (if he said so willfully, with a warning and before witnesses)
6)[line 16]לקרבןKORBAN- [the obligation to bring] a Korban Chatas (if he said so b'Shogeg)
7)[line 16]ואפילו לרבנן?V'AFILU L'RABANAN?- is this the case even according to the Rabanan (see next entry)?
8)[line 20]רבי עקיבא היא, דאמר לא בעינן מעשהREBBI AKIVA HI, D'AMAR LO BA'INAN MA'ASEH- it is according to Rebbi Akiva, who says we do not require an action [to obligate a person in a Korban Chatas]. Rebbi Akiva and the Chachamim argue regarding the Megadef (blasphemer), Kerisus 7a.
9)[line 26]דאיתקושי איתקושITKUSHEI ITKUSH (HEKESH)
10)[line 26]"[סָרוּ מַהֵר מִן הַדֶּרֶךְ אֲשֶׁר צִוִּיתִם, עָשׂוּ לָהֶם עֵגֶל מַסֵּכָה;] וַיִּשְׁתַּחֲווּ לוֹ וַיִּזְבְּחוּ לוֹ, וַיֹּאמְרוּ [אֵלֶּה אֱלֹהֶיךָ יִשְׂרָאֵל אֲשֶׁר הֶעֱלוּךָ מֵאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם]""[SARU MAHER MIN HA'DERECH ASHER TZIVISIM, ASU LAHEM EGEL MASECHAH;] VA'YISHTACHAVU LO, VA'YIZBECHU LO, VA'YOMERU, ['ELEH ELOHECHA YISRAEL ASHER HE'ELUCHA ME'ERETZ MITZRAYIM]"- "[They have turned aside quickly from the way which I commanded them, they have made [a molten calf;] and have worshipped it, and have sacrificed to it, and said, ['These are your gods, O Yisrael, which have brought you out of the land of Egypt]" (Shemos 32:8).
11a)[line 27]אלמלא וי"ו שב"העלוך"ILMALEI "VAV" SHE'B'"HE'ELUCHA"- if not for the letter "Vav" in the word "He'elucha" (indicating the plural)
b)[line 28]נתחייבו [שונאיהם] (רשעיהם) של ישראל כלייהNISCHAYEVU [SONE'EHEM] (RISH'EHEM) SHEL YISRAEL KELAYAH- the "enemies of" Yisrael (euphemistically referring to Yisrael themselves) would have been deserving of destruction
12)[line 34]שאיוו אלוהות הרבהIVU ELOHOS HARBEH- they desired many (false) gods
13a)[line 37]על כולם לוקהAL KULAM LOKEH- for any of these acts (that is exempt from the death penalty), he receives Malkus
b)[line 37]חוץ מהנודר בשמו, והמקיים בשמוCHUTZ MEHA'NODER BI'SHEMO VEHA'MEKAYEM BI'SHEMO- except for making a Neder or Shevu'ah by the idol's name (see Background to Sanhedrin 60:31)
14)[line 40]לאו שבכללותLAV SHEBI'CHELALOS
A Lav shebi'Chelalos is a single Lav that prohibits many different acts. There is an argument among the Amora'im as to whether a person who transgresses a number of the prohibitions included in a single Lav receives a separate Malkus for each prohibition, one Malkus for everything, or no Malkus at all (see Insights to Pesachim 41:2). Our Gemara assumes the last opinion.
15)[line 41]מנין לאוכֵל מן הבהמה קודם שתצא נפשהMINAYIN LA'OCHEIL MIN HA'BEHEMAH KODEM SHE'TETZEI NAFSHAH...- from where do we know that one who eats from an animal before it has died (even after a proper Shechitah)...
16)[line 43]"לֹא תֹאכְלוּ עַל הַדָּם...""LO SOCHELU AL HA'DAM..."- "Do not eat upon the blood..." (Vayikra 19:26).
17)[line 44]לא תאכלו בשר ועדיין דם במזרקLO SOCHELU BASAR V'ADAYIN DAM BA'MIZRAK- do not eat meat [of a Korban] while its blood is still in the Mizrak (waiting to be applied to the Mizbe'ach)
18)[line 46]שאין מברין על הרוגי בית דיןEIN MEVARIN AL HARUGEI VEIS DIN- we do not offer a Se'udas Havra'ah for [the relatives of] those executed by Beis Din (see next entry)
19)[line 46]מבריןMEVARIN (SE'UDAS HAVRA'AH)
When the mourners return from the burial of a close relative, others provide them with their first meal, which is known as the Se'udas Havra'ah (Moed Katan 27b).
20)[line 50]אזהרה לבן סורר ומורה מנין?AZHARAH L'VEN SORER U'MOREH MINAYIN?- Where is the verse that prohibits [one to act as] a Ben Sorer u'Moreh? (See Background to Sanhedrin 45:44.)
21)[last line]"[וְ]לֹא תוֹתִירוּ מִמֶּנּוּ עַד בֹּקֶר; [וְהַנֹּתָר מִמֶּנּוּ עַד בֹּקֶר, בָּאֵשׁ תִּשְׂרֹפוּ]""[V']LO SOSIRU MI'MENU AD BOKER; [VEHA'NOSAR MI'MENU AD BOKER, BA'ESH TISROFU]"- "And do not leave over any of it (the Korban Pesach) until the morning; [whatever is left over until the morning you shall burn in fire]" (Shemos 12:10).
22)[line 1]לומר שאין לוקין עליוLOMAR SHE'EIN LOKIN ALAV (LAV SHE'NITAK L'ASEH)
(a)A Lo Sa'aseh she'Nitak l'Aseh describes a negative commandment (Lo Sa'aseh or "Lav") that is followed by a positive commandment (Aseh) instructing us what to do if the Lav was transgressed. Usually, the Aseh is an action that is performed to correct the Lav. For example, the Torah states, "Lo Sigzol" - "You shall not steal" (Vayikra 19:13); if someone transgresses this prohibition, the Torah tells him to correct his misdeed, "v'Heshiv Es ha'Gezelah" - "He shall return the stolen object" (Vayikra 5:23).
(c)When the Torah follows up a Lav with an Aseh, one who transgresses the Lav generally does not receive Malkus (there are, however, certain exceptions to this rule). Rashi to Pesachim 84a gives two reasons for this:
1.The implication of such an arrangement is that one need only perform the Aseh and this is enough to make up for the transgression.
2.The punishment of Malkus for transgressing a Lav is derived from the prohibition against muzzling an ox while it is in the middle of threshing grain (see Background to Menachos 58:16), which is written in the Torah together with the commandment to administer Malkus. This "Lav d'Chasimah" is not followed by an Aseh; therefore any Lav which is followed by an Aseh is not similar to it, and there is no source that one receives Malkus for transgressing such a Lav.
23)[line 2]לא מן השם הוא זהLO MIN HA'SHEM HU ZEH- the reason that you (Rebbi Yehudah) gave is not the main reason for this Halachah (RASHI)
24)[line 3]לאו שאין בו מעשה אין לוקין עליוLAV SHE'EIN BO MA'ASEH, EIN LOKIN ALAV
A Lav she'Ein Bo Ma'aseh is a Torah prohibition that is transgressed without the performance of an action. One example of such a prohibition is the prohibition against leaving the meat of a Korban Pesach uneaten until the next morning (Shemos 12:10). Tana'im disagree (Makos 4b et al.) as to whether or not one receives lashes for transgressing this type of Lav.
25)[line 7]"[וּבְכֹל אֲשֶׁר אָמַרְתִּי אֲלֵיכֶם תִּשָּׁמֵרוּ;] וְשֵׁם אֱלֹהִים אֲחֵרִים לֹא תַזְכִּירוּ, לֹא יִשָּׁמַע עַל פִּיךָ""... V'SHEM ELOHIM ACHERIM LO SAZKIRU, LO YISHAMA AL PICHA"- "... and you shall not mention the name of other gods, it shall not be heard upon your mouth" (Shemos 23:13).
26)[line 9]שמור ליSHEMOR LI- wait for me
27)[line 11]ולא יגרום לאחריםLO YIGROM LA'ACHERIM- he shall not cause others (i.e. idolaters)
28)[line 14]"וְכָל יִשְׂרָאֵל יִשְׁמְעוּ [וְיִרָאוּן; וְלֹא יוֹסִפוּ לַעֲשׂוֹת כַּדָּבָר הָרָע הַזֶּה בְּקִרְבֶּךָ]""V'CHOL YISRAEL YISHME'U V'YIRA'U[N; V'LO YOSIFU LA'ASOS KA'DAVAR HA'RA HA'ZEH B'KIRBECHA]"- "And all of Yisrael shall hear and be fearful; and they shall no longer do an evil matter such as this in your midst" (Devarim 13:12).
29)[line 20]כי אתא עולא, בָּת בקלנבוKI ASA ULA, BAS B'KALNEVO- when Ula arrived, he spent the night in Kalnevo
30)[line 24]כל עבודת כוכבים הכתובה בתורהKOL AVODAS KOCHAVIM HA'KESUVAH BA'TORAH- any [name of an] idol that is written in the Torah (or Tanach)
31)[line 25]"כָּרַע בֵּל קֹרֵס נְבוֹ, [הָיוּ עֲצַבֵּיהֶם לַחַיָּה וְלַבְּהֵמָה; נְשֻׂאֹתֵיכֶם עֲמוּסוֹת, מַשָּׂא לַעֲיֵפָה]""KARA BEL, KOREIS NEVO, HAYU ATZABEIHEM LA'CHAYAH VELA'BEHEMAH; NESU'OSECHEM AMUSOS, MASA LA'AYEFAH]"- "Bel has knelt, Nevo is bent over, [their idols have been [placed] onto beasts and animals (to be carried into exile); their burden is overloaded, a wearisome burden]" (Yeshayah 46:1). The Gemara (line 29) interprets this verse as mockery of the idols, "Bel has knelt down, Nevo defecates violently, their idols have become soiled as do the beasts and animals; their innards had become overloaded..." (Rashi to Yeshayah loc.cit.).
32a)[line 26]ראה אחת מרובה כשלשRA'AH ACHAS MERUBAH K'SHALOSH- he saw one [Zov emission], for a duration as long as three [sightings]
b)[line 27]שהוא כְּמִגַּדְיָוָן לשילֹהSHE'HU KMI'GAD-YAVAN L'SHILOH- which is as long as it takes to walk from Gad-Yavan to Shiloh
c)[line 27]שהן שתי טבילות ושני ספוגיןSHE'HEN SHTEI TEVILOS U'SHNEI SIPUGIN- which is as long as it takes to immerse and then dry off, twice
d)[line 27]הרי זה זב גמורHAREI ZEH ZAV GAMUR (ZAV)
(a)A Zav (Vayikra 15:1-15), a man who emits Zov two or three times, whether it is emitted in one day or in two or three consecutive days, is an Av ha'Tum'ah. Zov is a clear discharge with the appearance of the white of a sterile or spoiled egg, in contrast with semen, which has the consistency of fresh egg white. Zov can also be a pus-like discharge resembling the liquid from barley dough or soft barley batter. A man who emits Zov one time is Tamei like a Ba'al Keri (see Background to Bava Kama 25:6) and need only immerse and wait for nightfall to become Tahor.
(b)A man who emits a discharge that may be Zov is "checked" to determine whether or not he becomes a Zav. If he is an Ones - an external factor contributed to the emission - then he remains Tahor. Circumstances that may induce an emission of Zov are:
1.eating too much;
2.drinking too much;
3.carrying a heavy load;
6.(a) seeing a frightening sight (RASHI to Nazir 65b); (b) seeing a woman, even without having unclean thoughts (ROSH to Nazir ibid.);
7.having unclean thoughts.
(c)In order to become Tahor, a Zav must count seven "clean" days (Shiv'ah Nekiyim) in which he sees no Zov, as it states in Vayikra 15:13. On the seventh day or afterwards, he must immerse in a spring during the day. At nightfall he becomes Tahor, if he did not emit Zov again beforehand (ibid.).
(d)If a Zav emits Zov only twice, he need not bring a Korban. If he has discharged Zov three times, however - whether over the course of one day or over two or three consecutive days - he must offer a Korban after completing his seven clean days in order to be able to enter the Beis ha'Mikdash or eat Korbanos. The Korban consists of a pair of turtle-doves or common doves, one as an Olah and one as a Chatas.
(e)The Mishnah cited by our Gemara teaches that one long emission is the equivalent of three separate emissions, and this Zav must therefore bring a Korban upon the completion of his purification.
33)[line 28]"[וְאַתֶּם עֹזְבֵי ה' הַשְּׁכֵחִים אֶת הַר קָדְשִׁי;] הַעוֹרְכִים לַגַּד שֻׁלְחָן [וְהַמְמַלְאִים לַמְנִי מִמְסָךְ]""HA'ORECHIM LA'GAD SHULCHAN, VEHA'MEMALE'IM LA'MENI MIMSACH"- "[And you, who have abandoned HaSh-m, who have forgotten My holy mountain;] who arrange a table to Gad, and who fill up wine [libations] to Meni" (Yeshayah 65:11). The commentaries explain these as the names of stars or planets; Radak and Metzudos interpret Gad as the planet Tzedek (known in English as Jupiter).
34)[line 30]"קָרְסוּ כָרְעוּ יַחְדָּו, לֹא יָכְלוּ מַלֵּט מַשָּׂא; [וְנַפְשָׁם בַּשְּׁבִי הָלָכָה]""KARESU CHARE'U YACHDAV, LO YACHELU MALET MASA..."- "They all collapsed and knelt down, they were unable to escape being transported, [and they themselves were taken into captivity]" (Yeshayah 46:2). The Gemara interprets, "They defecated violently even as they knelt down, they were unable to discharge their burden [normally]..."
35)[line 31]"(דִּבְּרוּ...) לְעֶגְלוֹת בֵּית אָוֶן יָגוּרוּ שְׁכַן שׁוֹמְרוֹן; כִּי אָבַל עָלָיו עַמּוֹ וּכְמָרָיו עָלָיו יָגִילוּ, עַל כְּבוֹדוֹ כִּי גָלָה מִמֶּנּוּ""(DIBERU...) L'EGLOS BEIS AVEN YAGURU SHECHAN SHOMRON; KI AVAL ALAV AMO U'CHEMARAV ALAV YAGILU, AL KEVODO KI GALAH MI'MENU"- "Because of the (idolatrous) calves of Beis Aven (i.e. Beis El), its neighbor Shomron fears; for its nation mourns over it (the calves that were taken captive), but its priests rejoice over it, over its honor that was exiled from it" (Hoshea 10:5).
36)[line 32]אל תקרי "כבודו" אלא "כבידו"AL TIKRI "KEVODO" ELA "KEVEDO"- do not read it as "its honor" but as "its heaviness" (i.e., the priests shall rejoice over the weight of the calves' hindquarters and their contents that they will no longer have to carry)
37)[line 33]"וְעַתָּה יוֹסִיפוּ לַחֲטֹא, וַיַּעֲשׂוּ לָהֶם מַסֵּכָה מִכַּסְפָּם כִּתְבוּנָם עֲצַבִּים, [מַעֲשֵׂה חָרָשִׁים כֻּלֹּה; לָהֶם הֵם אֹמְרִים,] זוֹבְחֵי אָדָם עֲגָלִים יִשָּׁקוּן""V'ATAH YOSIFU LA'CHATO, VA'YA'ASU LAHEM MASECHAH MI'KASPAM KI'SEVUNAM ATZABIM, [MA'ASEH CHARASHIM KULOH; LAHEM HEM OMERIM,] 'ZOVECHEI ADAM AGALIM YISHAKUN'"- "And now, they sin increasingly, and they have made for themselves a molten image, from their money, in their image, an idol, [entirely the work of craftsmen; to them they say,] those who slaughter a man shall kiss the calves" (Hoshea 13:2).
38a)[line 37]שהיו משרתי עבודת כוכבים נותנים עיניהם בבעלי ממוןSHE'HAYU MESHARESEI AVODAS KOCHAVIM NOSENIM EINEIHEM B'VA'ALEI MAMON- the idolatrous priests would set their sights on rich individuals (whose property would revert to their temple, or who would pay large ransoms to escape - MAHARSHA)
b)[line 38]ומרעיבים את העגליםU'MAR'IVIM ES HA'AGALIM- and they would then starve the calves [live animals that were worshipped]
c)[line 38]ועושין דמות (עצבים) [עצביהם]V'OSIN DEMUS (ATZABIM) [ATZABEIHEM]- the priests would craft the images [of those rich people]
d)[line 38]ומעמידין בצד אבוסיהןU'MA'AMIDAN B'TZAD EIVUSEIHEN- and set them up next to the calves' feeding troughs
e)[line 39]ומוציאין אותן לחוץU'MOTZI'IN OSAN LA'CHUTZ- they would bring the calves outside
39)[line 39]וממשמשין בהןMEMASHMESHIN BAHEN- [the calves] would feel at them (as if to say, "feed us")
40)[line 43]"וְאַנְשֵׁי בָבֶל עָשׂוּ אֶת סֻכּוֹת בְּנוֹת, וְאַנְשֵׁי כוּת עָשׂוּ אֶת נֵרְגַל, וְאַנְשֵׁי חֲמָת עָשׂוּ אֶת אֲשִׁימָא""V'ANSHEI VAVEL ASU ES 'SUKOS BENOS,' V'ANSHEI CHUS ASU ES 'NERGAL,' V'ANSHEI CHAMAS ASU ES 'ASHIMA'" - "The Babylonians [who had been brought to Shomron] made [the idol] 'Sukos Benos,' and the men of Kus made 'Nergal,' and the men of Chamas made 'Ashima'" (Melachim II 17:30) (KUSIM)
After the exile of the Ten Tribes, the King of Ashur brought the people of Kus and other lands to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. Initially, they practiced idolatry, but they adopted Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. Tana'im dispute whether their conversion was valid. See Background to Kidushin 76:2.
41)[line 45]ברחא קרחאBARCHA KARCHA- a bald member of the flock (i.e. a goat)
42)[line 45]"וְהָעַוִּים עָשׂוּ אֶת (נבחן) [נִבְחַז] וְאֶת תַּרְתָּק, וְהַסְפַרְוִים שֹׂרְפִים אֶת בְּנֵיהֶם (ואת בנותיהם) בָּאֵשׁ לְאַדְרַמֶּלֶךְ וַעֲנַמֶּלֶךְ אֱלֹהֵי סְפַרְוָיִם""VEHA'AVIM ASU ES 'NIVCHAZ' V'ES 'TARTAK,' VEHA'SEFARVIM SOREFIM ES BENEIHEM BA'ESH L'ADRAMELECH' V'ANAMELECH' ELOHEI SEFARVAYIM"- "The Avim made 'Nivchaz' and 'Tartak,' and the Sefarvim would burn their children in fire to 'Adramelech' and 'Anamelech,' the gods of Sefarvayim" (Melachim II 17:31). The word "Nivchaz" is related to "Nove'ach," "barking" -RASHI.
43a)[line 48]דאדר ליה למריה בטעינהD'ADAR LEI L'MAREI BI'TE'INA- it honors its master by bearing his burden
b)[line 48]דעני ליה למריה בקרבאD'ANI LEI L'MAREI BI'KERAVA- it obeys its master in battle
44a)[line 49]אף חזקיה מלך יהודה, ביקש אביו לעשות לו כןAF CHIZKIYAHU MELECH YEHUDAH, BIKESH AVIV LA'ASOS LO KEN- even Chizkiyahu, [later] King of Yehudah, his father [Achaz] wanted to do to him so (see Background to Sanhedrin 47:2)
b)[line 49]אלא שסכתו אמו סלמנדראELA SHE'SACHATO IMO SALEMANDERA- except that his mother smeared him with "Salemandra" to protect him from fire (see Insights to Chulin 127:1)
45)[line 52]"כִּזְכּוֹר בְּנֵיהֶם, מִזְבְּחוֹתָם, [וַאֲשֵׁרֵיהֶם עַל עֵץ רַעֲנָן, עַל גְּבָעוֹת הַגְּבֹהוֹת]""KI'ZEKOR BENEIHEM, MIZBECHOSAM, VA'ASHEREIHEM AL ETZ RA'ANAN, AL GAVA'OS HA'GEVOHOS]"- "As the memory of their children was [their longing for] their [idolatrous] altars, [and their Asheros, next to the fresh trees, on the lofty hills]" (Yirmeyahu 17:2).
46)[line 53]געגועיןGA'AGU'IN- longing
47)[line 53]בתר דאביקו ביהBASAR D'AVIKU BEI- [this was] after they became attached to it
48)[line 53]"[וְהִשְׁמַדְתִּי אֶת בָּמֹתֵיכֶם וְהִכְרַתִּי אֶת חַמָּנֵיכֶם,] וְנָתַתִּי [אֶת] פִּגְרֵיכֶם עַל פִּגְרֵי גִּלּוּלֵיכֶם; [וְגָעֲלָה נַפְשִׁי אֶתְכֶם]""[V'HISHMADTI ES BAMOSEICHEM V'HICHRATI ES CHAMANEICHEM,] V'NASATI [ES] PIGREICHEM AL PIGREI GILULEICHEM..."- "[And I shall destroy your high altars, and I shall cut down your sun-idols,] and I shall put your carcasses upon the carcasses of your abominations..." (Vayikra 26:30).
49)[line 54]היה מחזר על תְּפוּחֵי רעב שבירושליםHAYAH MECHAZER AL TEFUCHEI RA'AV SHEBI'YERUSHALAYIM- he would go around to those bloated by hunger in Yerushalayim [at the time of the Churban of the first Beis ha'Mikdash]