MISHNAH: MUSAF OF ROSH HASHANAH
(R. Yochanan ben Nuri): In Musaf of Rosh Hashanah, one says Avos, Gevuros, Kedushas Hash-m, including Malchuyos, but not blowing the Shofar.
Then Kedushas ha'Yom and blowing Shofar,
Then Zichronos and blowing Shofar,
Then Shofros and blowing Shofar,
Then Avodah, Hoda'ah, and Birchas Kohanim.
(R. Akiva): There's no point in mentioning Malchuyos and not blowing Shofar; it should be included in Kedushas ha'Yom and then blow Shofar.
R. AKIVA'S ARGUMENT
Question: How could R. Akiva say that there would be no point in mentioning Malchuyos - the Torah instructs it?
Answer: He meant that since it is already different to Zichronos and Shofros, it should also have less Pesukim.
THE SOURCES FOR THE BERACHOS
A Beraisa lists the sources for the obligation to say the Berachos of Avos, Gevuros, and Kedushas Hash-m.
R. Eliezer and R. Akiva cite different sources for Zichronos, Shofros, and Kedushas ha'Yom.
The source for the Berachah of Malchuyos:
(Rebbi): The Torah says "I am Hash-m" and continues "In the seventh month."
(R. Yosi bar Yehudah): A Pasuk shows that Zichronos is always to be accompanied by Malchuyos.
Question: Where is Kedushas ha'Yom said?
Answer: As taught in a Beraisa:
(Rebbi): It is said with Malchuyos, as we find that it is always in the fourth Berachah.
(R. Shimon ben Gamliel): It is said with Zichronos, as we always find that it is in the middle Berachah.
(The Beraisa continues): When the Sanhedrin went to Usha, R. Yochanan ben Beruka followed R. Yochanan ben Nuri (in the Mishnah, that Malchuyos is said in Kedushas Hash-m and not accompanied by Shofar).
R. Shimon ben Gamliel told him that such was not the custom in Yavneh.
On the second day, R. Chanina ben R. Yosi Hagelili followed R. Akiva (putting Malchuyos in Kedushas ha'Yom with Shofar blowing).
R. Shimon ben Gamliel told him that such was the custom in Yavneh.
Question: This shows that R. Shimon ben Gamliel followed R. Akiva, yet R. Akiva said that Kedushas ha'Yom should be said with Malchuyos, and he said that Kedushas ha'Yom should be said with Zichronos!?
Answer: R. Shimon ben Gamliel only followed R. Akiva regarding blowing the Shofar for Malchuyos, but not regarding the placement of Kedushas h'Yom.
Question: What does "the second day" mean?
It can't mean the second day of Yom Tov, as that would mean that Elul was a full month, which never happened after Ezra's time?
Answer: It means the next day of Rosh Hashanah which occurred, i.e. in the following year.
MISHNAH: THE NUMBER OF PESUKIM
There must be no less than ten Pesukim for Malchuyos, Zichronos and Shofros.
(R. Yochanan ben Nuri): If he said three Pesukim for each, he is Yotzei.
THE TEN PESUKIM OF MALCHUYOS
Question: What do the ten Pesukim of Malchuyos correspond to?
Answer #1 (R. Levi): The expressions of Hallel in Tehillim.
Question: There are more than ten!?
Answer: The ten which say to praise Him with Shofar.
Answer #2 (R. Yosef): They correspond to the Ten Commandments.
Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): They correspond to the ten utterances with which the world was created.
These are the nine "And he said"'s of Bereishis, plus Bereishis itself.
R. YOCHANAN BEN NURI'S VIEW
The Gemara discusses R. Yochanan ben Nuri's opinion that it is adequate to say three Pesukim for each.
Question: Does he mean three Pesukim from Torah, from Nevi'im, and Kesuvim, totaling nine, thus differing from the Tana Kama by one, or one from each, totaling three?
Answer: We see that he means a total of three:
(Beraisa): There must be no less than ten Pesukim for Malchuyos, Zichronos and Shofros.
If he said seven from each, corresponding to the Seven Heavens, he is Yotzei.
(R. Yochanan ben Nuri): If he says less, he should still say seven; if he says three, he is still Yotzei, corresponding to Torah, Nevi'im and Kesuvim, or Kohanim, Levi'im and Yisraelim.
The Halachah follows R. Yochanan ben Nuri.
MISHNAH: RESTRICTED PESUKIM
We do not mention Pesukim of Malchuyos, Zichronos and Shofros that deal with punishment.
We begin with a Pasuk from Torah, and finish with one from Nevi'im.
(R. Yose): If one finishes with a Pasuk from Torah, he is Yotzei.
EXAMPLES AND QUALIFICATIONS
The Gemara lists examples of Pesukim dealing with punishment which may not be used (as cited).
However, one may use Pesukim dealing with punishment to idolaters, such as the examples cited.
We do not mention a Pasuk dealing with the remembrance of an individual, even if it is a beneficial one, such as the examples cited.
(R. Yosi): Pesukim about Pikdonos are like Zichronos, such as that of Sarah.
(R. Yehudah): They are not.
Question: Even if they are, Sarah was an individual, which we ruled out!?
Answer: Since she had many descendants, it is considered a remembrance of many.
The Beraisa discusses a dispute between R. Yosi and R. Yehudah as to the number of mentions of Malchuyos in Se'u She'arim and Zamru Elokim (as cited).
It then mentions another dispute of theirs concerning a Pasuk of Zichronos that also mentions Teru'ah:
(R. Yosi): It can be said both with Zichronos and Shofros.
(R. Yehudah): It can only be said with Zichronos.
Concerning a Pasuk of Malchuyos that also mentions Teru'ah:
(R. Yosi): It can be said both with Malchuyos and Shofros.
(R. Yehudah): It can only be said with Malchuyos.
Concerning a Pasuk that only mentions Teru'ah:
(R. Yosi): It can be said with Shofros.
(R. Yehudah): It cannot be said at all.
THE FINISHING PASUK
The Mishnah said that we begin with a Pasuk from Torah, and finish with one from Nevi'im, and R. Yose said that if one finishes with a Pasuk from Torah, he is Yotzei.
Question: It seems according to R. Yosi that it is b'Di'eved acceptable if he finishes with a Pasuk from Torah, yet a Beraisa states that he held it to be praiseworthy!?
Answer: Emend the Mishnah to read that he should finish with a Pasuk from Torah.
Question: But it said "If he did, then he is Yotzei," implying b'Di'eved?
Answer: Emend it to read that he should finish with a Pasuk from Torah, but if he did finish with a Pasuk from Nevi'im, he is Yotzei.
Similarly, we find in a Beraisa that the devoted ones would finish with a Pasuk from Torah.
THE PESUKIM FOR MALCHUYOS
The Gemara discusses the rule that the first three and the tenth Pasuk should be from the Torah:
Question: That is good for Zichronos and Shofros, but for Malchuyos there are only three Pesukim in the Torah!?
Answer: We see in a Beraisa that other Pesukim in the Torah are considered to refer to Malchuyos:
"Shema Yisrael...", "ve'Yadaata ha'Yom" and "Atah Haraysa" are considered to be Malchuyos according to R. Yosi, but not according to R. Yehudah.
MISHNAH: SHACHARIS AND MUSAF
On Rosh Hashanah, the Shofar is blown during Musaf.
When Hallel is said (on festivals), it is done by the one leading Shacharis.
UNDERSTANDING THE MISHNAH
Question: If the Shofar is blown during Musaf, presumably because there are more people and it is more honorable, then Hallel should also be at Musaf; if it is at Shacharis to show zeal, then so too should be Shofar?
Answer: The government decreed against Shofar, so it was changed to Musaf to avoid detection.
Question: The Mishnah implies that there is no Hallel on Rosh Hashanah - why not?
Answer: Hash-m told the Melachim that it would be inappropriate for them to do so while undergoing judgment.
MISHNAH: LAWS OF SHOFAR
For the Shofar, one may not travel beyond the Techum on Shabbos, clear away rubble, climb a tree, ride an animal, swim, or cut it, whether with something prohibited d'Rabanan or d'Oraisa.
However, he may rinse it with water or wine.
We do not prevent children from blowing the Shofar, but rather we encourage them to learn how to blow it.
One who blows absent-mindedly is not Yotzei, nor is someone who hears Shofar from such a person Yotzei.
TRANSGRESSING YOM TOV FOR SHOFAR
The reason why one may not break Yom Tov for Shofar is that Shofar is an Ase, whereas Yom Tov is both an Aseh and a Lo Sa'aseh, which is not pushed aside.
Question: Why did the Mishnah need to prohibit the d'Oraisa of climbing a tree etc. when it has already prohibited the d'Rabanan (of Techum)?
Answer: The format is that "this, and needless to say this" is forbidden.