ROSH HASHANAH 31 (10 Sivan) - Today's study material has been dedicated by Mrs. Rita Grunberger of Queens, N.Y., in loving memory of her husband, Reb Yitzchok Yakov (Irving) ben Eliyahu Grunberger. Irving Grunberger helped many people quietly in an unassuming manner and is dearly missed by all who knew him. His Yahrzeit is 10 Sivan.

[31a - 54 lines; 31b - 52 lines]

1)[line 1]דשירה דיומיה היאD'SHIRAH D'YOMEI HI- for ["Harninu la'Lokim Uzeinu"] is the song [usually sung during the offering] of Thursday['s morning Tamid]

2)[line 2]בראשון מה היו אומרים?BA'RISHON MAH HAYU OMRIM?- which [chapter of Tehilim] did [the Leviyim] sing during [the offering of] Sunday['s morning Tamid]?

3)[line 3]ומלואהMELO'AH- all that fills it

4a)[line 3]שקנה והקנהKANAH V'HIKNEH- (lit. acquired) created in order to transfer [to its inhabitants]

b)[line 4]ושליט בעולמוV'SHALIT B'OLAMO- and ruled [solely] over His world [as the Mal'achim were not created until the second day of creation]

5)[line 5]ומהוללMEHULAL- praised

6)[line 5]שחילק מעשיוCHILEK MA'ASAV- he divided His works (referring to the separation of the firmament from the water remaining upon the surface of the earth)

7)[line 6]"א-לקים נצב בעדת קל""EL-KIM NITZAV BA'ADAS KEL"- "G-d stands in the congregation of righteous ones..." (Tehilim 82:1).

8)[line 7]שגילה ארץGILAH ERETZ- he revealed land [by causing the sea to recede]

9)[line 8]תבלTEVEL- inhabitable land

10)[line 8]"ק-ל נקמות ה'"KEL NEKAMOS- a G-d of vengeance

11)[line 9]חמהCHAMAH- the sun

12)[line 10]ליפרעLI'PARA- to exact revenge

13)[line 12]לשבח לשמוL'SHABE'ACH LI'SHMO- [who astonishing variety would inspire man] to praise His name

14)[line 12]"ה' מלך גאות לבש""HASH-M MALACH, GE'US LAVESH..."- "HaSh-m reigned, and clothed Himself in magnificence..." (Tehilim 93:1).

15)[line 15]ליום שכולו שבתYOM SHE'KULO SHABBOS- a day of complete inactivity. As the Gemara goes on to explain, this "day" refers to the thousand year period following the destruction of the world as we know it. One thousand years are as one day to HaSh-m (Tehilim 90:4).

16)[line 16]לחלק בין הפרקים הללוL'CHALEK BEIN HA'PERAKIM HALALU- to differentiate between the [six] chapters [recited on the six days of the week, which Rebbi Akiva interprets as referring to the six days of creation, and that recited on Shabbos, which Rebbi Akiva interprets as referring to the future state of the world]?

17)[line 23]ששבתSHE'SHAVAS- that he rested [on the seventh day of creation]

18)[line 23]וקמיפלגי בדרב קטינאKA'MIPALGI BED'RAV KETINA- [Rebbi Akiva and Rebbi Nechemyah] disagree over [the statement of] Rav Ketina

19a)[line 24]שיתא אלפי שני הוה עלמאSHISA ALFEI SHANEI HAVAH ALMA- the world will exist for six thousand years

b)[line 24]וחד חרובV'CHAD CHARUV- and [following that, it will lie] destroyed for one thousand

20)[line 25]"ונשגב ה' לבדו ביום ההוא""V'NISGAV HASH-M LEVADO BA'YOM HAHU."- "[And the stature of man shall be brought low, and the strength of people weakened;] and HaSh-m alone shall be exalted on that day" (Yeshayah 2:17). This verse refers to the end of days; a very similar phraseology appears in verse 11.

21)[line 26]"יחינו מימים [ביום השלישי יקמנו ונחיה לפניו]""YECHAYENU MI'YOMAYIM; [BA'YOM HA'SHELISHI YEKIMENU V'NICHYEH L'FANAV]"- "He will revive us after two days; [on the third day He will raise us up, and we will live before Him]" (Hoshe'a 6:2) - Each "day" refers to one thousand years; see above, entry #15.

22)[line 29]הזי''ו ל''ךHA'ZIV LACH- HA'ZIV LACH is an acronym alluding to the first letters of each of the six sections that comprise the Shirah (song) in Parshas Ha'azinu (Devarim 32). These sections begin with the following words:

1.Ha'azinu (Devarim 32:1)

2.Zechor Yemos Olam (Devarim 32:7)

3.Yarkivehu Al (Devarim 32:13)

4a. Va'Yar (Devarim 32:19) (RASHI, TOSFOS quoting the RACH)

b. Va'Yishman (Devarim 32:15) (MASECHES SOFRIM)

5a. Lulei Ka'as (Devarim 32:27) (RASHI)

b. Lu Chachmu (Devarim 32:29) (MASECHES SOFRIM, RACH)

6a. Ki Yadin (Devarim 32:36) (RASHI, MASECHES SOFRIM)

b. Ki Esa El Shamayim (Devarim 32:40) (RAMBAM). The Rambam explains that the reason why the Shirah pauses at these places is so that each portion ends with words of rebuke, in order to inspire repentance. These six sections rotated as the Shirah (see Background to 30:34) sung during the Musaf Offering on Shabbos in the Beis ha'Mikdash. See Insights for a deeper understanding of this acronym.

23)[line 32]כך חלוקין בבית הכנסתKACH CHALUKIN B'VEIS HA'KENESES- so is the Shirah divided in the synagogue [when Parshas Ha'azinu is read on Shabbos]. (The seventh Aliyah read on Shabbos is the portion of Ha'azinu following the Shirah, beginning with Devarim 32:44.)

24)[line 34]"אז ישיר [משה ובני ישראל...]""AZ YASHIR [MOSHE U'VNEI YISRAEL...]"- "Then [Moshe and Bnei Yisrael] sang...." (Shemos 15:1-10) - This refers to the first part of the song sang at the Yam Suf (Red Sea), following its splitting.

25)[line 35]"מי כמוך [באלים ה'...]""MI CHAMOCHA [BA'ELIM HASH-M...]"- "Who is like you [among the strong ones, HaSh-m....]" (Shemos 15:10-19) - This refers to the second half of the Shirah sung at the Yam Suf.

26)[line 35]"אז ישיר [ישראל את השירה הזאת עלי באר ענו לה]""AZ YASHIR [YISRAEL ES HA'SHIRAH HA'ZOS: 'ALI VE'ER, ENU LAH']"- "Then [Yisrael] sang [this song: 'Arise, O well; all sing to it!]" (Bamidbar 21:17) - This is the beginning of the Shirah sang when the well of Miriam sank into a river and dredged up the remains of the enemies of Klal Yisrael. These enemies had been crushed by the Clouds of Glory while travelling through the desert. Once Klal Yisrael were aware of the miracles wrought on their behalf, they broke out in song. The song was sang every third week as the Shirah of the afternoon Tamid on Shabbos.

27a)[line 37]בחד שבתא אמרי להו?B'CHAD SHABATA AMREI LEHU?- were they recited every Shabbos [pausing at the designated places in Ha'azinu]?

b)[line 37]כל שבתא ושבתא אמרי חד?KOL SHABATA V'SHABATA AMREI CHAD?- every Shabbos one was recited [and they continued cyclically, moving to the next on the following Shabbos until beginning the rotation once more]?

28a)[line 39]עד שהראשונה אומרת אחתAD SHEHA'RISHONAH [OMERES] (CHOZERES) ACHAS- by the time that the first [cycle of the six portions from Ha'azinu recited during the offering of the Korban Musaf on Shabbos] had been completed once

b)[line 39]שניה חוזרת שתיםSHENIYAH CHOZERES SHETAYIM- the second [cycle of the three Shiros recited during the offering of the afternoon Tamid on Shabbos] had been completed twice

29a)[line 42]עשר מסעות נסעה שכינהESER MASA'OS NAS'AH SHECHINAH- the presence of HaSh-m traveled to ten locations

b)[line 42]מקראיMI'KERA'EI- [and they are all derived] from verses


(a)The Great Sanhedrin is the highest Halachic authority; as such, the most difficult cases are brought to this body (Devarim 17:8). Seventy-one judges sitting in the Lishkas ha'Gazis make up the Sanhedrin ha'Gedolah.

(b)The name Sanhedrin is a contraction of "Sonei Hadras Panim b'Din" - "those who despise favoritism in judgment" (BARTENURA to Sotah 9:11).

b)[line 43]מגמראMI'GEMARA- [and they are all known] from tradition

31a)[line 43]מכפרתKAPORES- the cover of the Aron

b)[line 43]לכרובKERUV (KERUVIM)

(a)In both the Mishkan in the desert and the Beis ha'Mikdash in Yerushalayim, Keruvim joined the Aron ha'Kodesh (Holy Ark) and Kapores (cover of the Ark) in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim. The Keruvim, child-faced winged figures fashioned from solid gold, were fashioned on the Kapores and stood ten-Tefachim tall with their wings extended over their heads toward each other (Shemos 25:18-21). They symbolized the relationship between HaSh-m and His nation. When Klal Yisrael fulfilled the will of their Father in Heaven, the Keruvim faced each other. When, G-d forbid, they did not, then the Keruvim turned away from one another (Yoma 54a-b).

(b)Aside from the Keruvim of the Kapores, an additional pair of Keruvim adorned the Kodesh ha'Kodashim of the Beis ha'Mikdash. These were ten Amos tall, and they stood upon the ground to either side of the Aron. They were fashioned out of olive wood and plated with gold. Their heads were positioned at an angle facing slightly eastward of each other, towards the entrance of the Heichal (Bava Basra 99a), and their wings were spread to either side. Their combined wing-span reached diagonally across the entire Kodesh ha'Kodashim and their wings met over the center of the Kapores (Melachim I 6:23-29).

c)[line 44]למפתןMIFTAN- the threshold of the Ulam (see below, entry #75)

d)[line 44]לחצרCHATZER- the area between the Ulam and the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon (see next entry)

e)[line 44]למזבחMIZBE'ACH- the Mizbe'ach ha'Chitzon (outer Mizbe'ach), also known as the Mizbach ha'Olah. All public Korbanos are offered upon this Mizbe'ach.

f)[line 44]לגגGAG- the roof [of the Heichal (the Sanctuary)]

g)[line 44]לחומהCHOMAH- the wall [of Yerushalayim]

h)[line 44]לעירIR- the city [of Yerushalayim]

i)[line 44]להרHAR- Har ha'Zeisim (the Mount of Olives)

32)[line 46]ונועדתיV'NO'ADTI- and I shall make myself known

33)[line 46]"וירכב על כרוב ויעף""VA'YIRKAV EL KRUV, VA'YA'OF"- "And He rode on a Keruv and He flew...." (Shmuel II 22:11) - This verse is part of the Shirah sang by David ha'Melech "when he was saved from his enemies and from Sha'ul [ha'Melech]" (Shmuel II 22:1).

34)[line 48]נגהNOGAH- splendor

35)[line 49]"טוב לשבת על פנת גג [מאשת מדינים ובית חבר]""TOV LA'SHEVES AL PINAS GAG [ME'ESHES MIDYANIM U'VEIS CHAVER]"- "It is better to dwell on the corner of the roof [than with a brawling woman or in the house of a companion]" (Mishlei 21:9) - Our Gemara interprets this verse to be uttered, as it were, by the Shechinah, saying, "It is better to dwell on the corner of the roof of the Heichal than with Klal Yisrael, who have turned to idol worship, or in the Beis ha'Mikdash, where they have erected an idol."

36)[line 49]חומת אנךCHOMAS ANACH- a wall constructed with a plumb line

37)[line 50]ההר אשר מקדם לעירHA'HAR ASHER MI'KEDEM LA'IR- the mountain to the east of Yerushalayim; i.e., the Mount of Olives

38)[line 53]תיפח (עצמן) [נפשן]TIPACH (ATZAMAN) [NAFSHAN]- let their (bones rot) [souls despair]

39)[line 53]"ועיני רשעים תכלינה ומנוס אבד מנהם ותקותם מפח נפש""V'EINEI RESHA'IM TICHLENAH, U'MANOS AVAD MINEHEM; V'SIKVASAM MAPACH NAFESH"- "And the eyes of the wicked shall fail, and desire and strength shall be lost to them; and their hope shall turn to despair in their souls" (Iyov 11:20).

40)[last line]מלשכת הגזיתLISHKAS HA'GAZIS- The Chamber of Hewn Stone, where the Great Sanhedrin (see above, entry #30a) sat in judgment. Alternatively, The Chamber Of Pruning, as the Sanhedrin weeded out those Kohanim whose lineage was found to be lacking (RITVA).

41)[last line]לחנותCHANUS- stalls erected on the Temple Mount. That which the Sanhedrin left the Lishkas ha'Gazis demonstrated that they would no longer judge cases of capital punishment.

42)[last line]ליבנהYAVNEH- a city near the coast of Eretz Yisrael (near present-day Rechovot)


43)[line 1]לאושא... לשפרעם... ומשפרעם... לבית שעריםUSHA... SHEFAR'AM... BEIS SHE'ARIM- cities in the western lower Galilee

44)[line 3]לצפוריTZIPORI- a city in the lower Galilee, approximately midway between present-day Teverya and Haifa. Here Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi finished editing the Mishnah.

45)[line 4]לטבריאTEVERYA- Tiberias, located on the Sea of Galilee

46)[line 4]עמוקהAMUKAH- low [in terms of altitude]

47)[line 5]"ושפלת מארץ תדברי...""V'SHAFALT; ME'ERETZ TEDABERI..."- "And you shall be lowered; you shall speak from the ground, [and your utterances shall emanate from down near the dust, and your voice shall come from the ground as does that of a spiritualist, and your utterances shall chirp from the dust]" (Yeshayah 29:4).

48)[line 6]"כי השח יושבי מרום, קריה נשגבה; ישפילנה ישפילה עד ארץ, יגיענה עד עפר""KI HESHACH YOSHVEI MAROM, KIRYAH NISGAVAH; YASHPILENAH YASHPILAH AD ERETZ, YAGI'ENAH AD AFAR"- "For He takes down those that dwell above, the lofty city; He has lowered - He has lowered it to the ground, He brings it to the dust" (Yeshayah 26:5) - Rebbi Elazar discerns six terms of lowering from this verse: "takes down," "lowered," "lowered," "to the ground," "brings," and "to the dust."

49)[line 9]"התנערי מעפר קומי שבי [ירושלם; התפתחי מוסרי צוארך שביה בת ציון]""HISNA'ARI ME'AFAR, KUMI SHEVI..."- "Shake yourself from the dust - arise and sit down, [Yerushalayim; release yourself from the straps of your yoke, captive daughter of Tziyon]" (Yeshayah 52:2).

50)[line 13]למקום הוועדMEKOM HA'VA'AD- the meeting place [of the Sanhedrin]

51)[line 13]איתתאITESA- a woman

52)[line 13]דאזמנוה לדינאAZMENUHA L'DINA- they summoned her to court [as she had failed to repay a loan (SIFSEI CHCHAMIM)]

53a)[line 14]בנהרדעיNAHARDE'A- a town in Bavel; location of the Yeshiva founded by Shmuel

b)[line 15]למחוזאMECHOZA- a large trading town located on the Tigris River with a predominantly Jewish population, where Rava was the religious leader

54)[line 15]פתיחאPESICHA- a preliminary document of excommunication written to persuade a litigant to obey the court (SIFSEI CHACHAMIM)

55)[line 19]עדות החדשEDUS HA'CHODESH

See Background to 18:21.

56)[line 19]מכשילן לעתיד לבאMACHSHILAN L'ASID LA'VO- you have discouraged them [from coming] in the future [since they must run after the head of Beis Din from place to place until they find him]

57)[line 20]"עבד לוה לאיש מלוה""[V']EVED LOVEH L'ISH MALVEH"- "[and] the borrower is a slave to he who lent him money" (Mishlei 22:7).

58)[line 22]בסנדליהןSANDELEIHEN- their sandals (or any other form of footwear)

59)[line 22]לדוכןDUCHAN (BIRKAS KOHANIM)

See Background to 28:37.

60a)[line 23]שית דהאי פירקאSHIS D'HAI PIRKA- six mentioned in this chapter; namely:

1.The Shofar should be blown wherever there is a Beis Din on Shabbos following the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash (29b),

2.The Arba'as ha'Minim should be taken all seven days of Sukos everywhere in memory of the Beis ha'Mikdash (30a),

3.Chadash is forbidden the entire sixteenth of Nisan (30a),

4.Witnesses for Edus ha'Chodesh should be accepted for the entire first day of Rosh Hashanah following the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash (30b),

5.The witnesses need only come to the meeting place of the Sanhedrin (31b),

6.Kohanim may not bless Klal Yisrael while wearing shoes (31b).

b)[line 23]וחדא דפירקא קמאV'CHADA D'FIRKA KAMA- and one mentioned in the first chapter; namely, that following the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash, witnesses for Edus ha'Chodesh may only desecrate Shabbos for the months of Nisan and Tishrei (21b).

61)[line 25]שיפריש רובעYAFRISH ROVA- he must designate (a) a quarter of a Shekel (equivalent to half a Dinar) (RASHI); (b) a quarter of a Dinar (TOSFOS)

62)[line 25]לקינוKINO (GER:KORBAN)

(a)When a Nochri converts to Judaism, he must be circumcised, immerse in a Mikvah, and offer a Korban. The Korban consists of either an animal or a Ken (a nest) of two birds as a Korban Olah.

(b)Raban Yochanan ben Zakai decreed that following the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash, a convert should not designate the money for the Korban, since one may easily come to mistakenly use it for something else and transgress the prohibition of Me'ilah (see below, entry #64).

63)[line 26]כבר נמנה עליה רבן יוחנןKVAR NIMNEH ALEHA RABAN YOCHANAN- Raban Yochanan [ben Zakai] has already counted [the requisite number for a Beis Din to rule] upon it

64)[line 27]התקלהHA'TAKALAH (ME'ILAH)

See Background to 28:14.

65)[line 28]כרם רבעיKEREM REVA'I

See Background to 10:5.

66)[line 29]לשון של זהוריתLASHON SHEL ZEHORIS (SA'IR HA'MISHTALE'ACH)

(a)On Yom ha'Kipurim, two goats identical in every way were led in front of the Kohen Gadol. As part of the service of the day, he cast a Goral (lot) to determine which of the goats would be the Sa'ir la'Shem, and which the Sa'ir la'Azazel. The first was offered as a Korban, and its blood was sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim; the other was dispatched (Mishtale'ach) to Azazel (a rocky cliff), from which it was pushed to its death. He who took the goat to Azazel became Tamei, and had to subsequently immerse his body and clothing in a Mikvah (Vayikra 16:26).

(c)The Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach symbolically carried with it all of the sins of Klal Yisrael; they were forgiven when it tumbles to its death. A piece of wool that had been dyed crimson (see Insights to Yoma 41b) remained behind in the Beis ha'Mikdash. When Klal Yisrael merited it, the wool would turn white as the Sa'ir went over the cliff to symbolize that they had been forgiven. Later, the piece of wool was taken along with the goat, and split in half. One half was tied between the horns of the Sa'ir ha'Mishtale'ach before it was led to Azazel, and the other was tied to a rock on top of the cliff before the Sa'ir was pushed.

67a)[line 31]היה עולה לירושליםHAYAH OLEH L'YERUSHALAYIM- was [decreed by the Chachamim to be] brought up to Yerushalayim [as unredeemable produce]

b)[line 31]מהלך יום לכל צדMEHALECH YOM L'CHOL TZAD- [from] a one-day's journey in every direction

68)[line 32]תחומהTECHUMAH- its borders [that were one day's journey away]

69)[line 32]ועקרבת מן (הדרום) [הצפון]AKRABAS MIN (HA'DAROM) [HA'TZAFON]- Akrabas to the north. (This may refer to the district of Akrabah in the Shomron, south of Shechem; see Atlas Da'as Mikra, Mosad ha'Rav Kook, 1993, p. 320 and Dikdukei Sofrim #300.)

70)[line 35]לעטרL'ATER- to adorn

71)[line 36]לרבי אליעזרL'REBBI ELIEZER- to Rebbi Eliezer. Rebbi Eliezer lived many years after the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash, when Yerushalayim was in the hands of Nochrim. The concept of adorning the marketplaces of Yerushalayim with produce was no longer relevant.

72)[line 37]כפר טביKEFAR TAVI- the village of Tavi [which was just to the east of Lod]

73)[line 37]להפקירו לענייםL'HAFKIRO L'ANIYIM- to renounce ownership of them in favor of the poor [since he could not be bothered to cart them to Yerushalayim]

74)[line 40]קושריןKOSHRIN- tie

75)[line 40]אולםULAM- the roofed hallway in front of the Sanctuary (Heichal); the largest and most ornate structure in the Beis ha'Mikdash, its roof is seventeen stories above the ground.

76)[line 40]הלביןHILBIN- if it turned white

77)[line 41]עצביןATZEVIN- dejected

78)[line 42]מציציןMETZITZIN- peek

79)[line 43]בסלעB'SELA- to a rock [on top of the cliff from which the goat is pushed]

80)[line 46]לאו אורח ארעא למימרא ליה לרביה רבךLAV ORACH AR'A L'MEIMRA LEI L'RABEI RABACH- it is not proper conduct (this is the Aramaic translation of "Derech Eretz") to refer to one's teacher's teacher as such ("your teacher"). Presumably this is because such a statement appears to equate the student speaking with his Rebbi.

81)[line 49]בפרקמטיאPERAKMATYA- business

82a)[line 49]למדLAMAD- he learned

b)[line 49]לימדLIMED- he taught

83)[line 51]מאדיםMA'ADIM- it would remain red

84)[line 51]משחרב הבית התקין רבן יוחנן בן זכאיMISHE'CHARAV BEIS HA'MIKDASH HISKIN RABAN YOCHANAN BEN ZAKAI- From the fact that Raban Yochanan ben Zakai was still enacting decrees following the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash it is clear that his career as a teacher began within the forty-year period prior to the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash. As it is not logical for him to have enacted decrees while still a student, it does not seem possible that he was the originator of the decision to move the crimson piece of wool to the Azazel cliff.

85)[last line]ואסתבר טעמיהISTABER TA'AMEI- his reasoning was sound