ROSH HASHANAH 26-30 - Dedicated Dr. Shalom Kelman of Baltimore, MD. May the Zechus of helping thousands study the Torah provide a Refu'ah Sheleimah for his father, Dr. Herbert (Isser Chayim ben Itta Fruma) Kelman.

[29a - 56 lines; 29b - 45 lines]

1)[line 1]איכוון ותקע ליICHAVEN U'TEKA LI- have me in mind and blow [the Shofar]

2)[line 6]היאךHEI'ACH- the other one

3a)[line 11]שומע לעצמוSHOME'A L'ATZMO- the one listening has [only] himself [in mind when intending to fulfill the Mitzvah]

b)[line 12]משמיע לעצמוMASHMI'A L'ATZMO- the one blowing has [only] himself [in mind when intending to fulfill the Mitzvah]

4)[line 12]וקתני לא יצאU'KETANI LO YATZA- Certain manuscripts omit these words altogether; many others, including early ones of Rashi's commentary, omit the word "Lo." According to these versions, the Gemara's question is easy to understand. The Beraisa implies that one can fulfill the Mitzvah of Shofar through the blowing of another even when the one blowing does not have specific intent to include him in the Mitzvah. Rav Betzalel Rensburg offers two possible ways to understand our Girsa: (a) When the Beraisa states that the one listening does not fulfill the Mitzvah, it refers to a situation in which the blower does not even intend to fulfill the Mitzvah for himself. This implies that the listener would fulfill the Mitzvah if the blower merely had his own Mitzvah in mind. (b) The Beraisa says that "Lo Yatza" — "he did not fulfill his Mitzvah." This implies that only the blower did not since he had no intention of doing so, but that the listener did fulfill his Mitzvah even when the blower did not have him in mind.

5)[line 16]"והיה כאשר ירים משה ידו וגבר ישראל..."V'HAYAH KA'ASHER YARIM MOSHE YADO V'GAVAR YISRAEL..."- "And it was when Moshe lifted his hand that Yisrael gained the advantage, [and when he rested his hand that Amalek gained the advantage.]" (Shemos 17:11) - This verse describes the battle that resulted when Amalek attacked Klal Yisrael as they left Mitzrayim.

6)[line 19]מסתכליןMISTAKLIN- gaze

7)[line 20]ומשעבדין את לבם...MESHABDIN ES LIBAM...- The reason for the inclusion of this Mishnah at this point in Maseches Rosh Hashanah is that it discusses the power of intent, just as the previous Mishnah describes how one is able to fulfill a Mitzvah only through the proper intent.

8)[line 22]"עשה לך שרף ושים אתו על נס והיה כל הנשוך וראה אתו וחי""ASEH LECHA SARAF V'SIM OSO AL NEIS, V'HAYAH KOL HA'NASHUCH V'RA'AH OSO VA'CHAI" - "[And HaSh-m said to Moshe,] 'Make for yourself a serpent and place it on a pole, and it will be that whoever is bitten and sees it will live.'" (Bamidbar 21:8) (THE COPPER SNAKE)

(a)Following the death of Aharon in the fortieth year in the desert, Klal Yisrael headed back toward the Yam Suf in order to avoid the land of Edom. They began to generally complain against HaSh-m and Moshe, while bad-mouthing the Man as well.

(b)HaSh-m responded to this ingratitude by sending a plague of poisonous snakes which began to infect the nation. Moshe prayed to HaSh-m on behalf of Klal Yisrael. Moshe fashioned a Nechash Nechoshes — a copper snake — and placed it high upon a pole. Those who gazed upon it after being bitten survived.

9)[line 27]נימוקיםNIMOKIM- lit. melt; decay

10)[line 27]חרשCHERESH- one who is deaf

11)[line 31]ועבדים משוחרריםAVADIM MESHUCHRARIM- freed [Nochri] slaves [who have the status of full-fledged converts]

12a)[line 32]וטומטוםTUMTUM- one whose genitals are hidden so that it is impossible to determine if he is male or female

b)[line 32]ואנדרוגינוסANDROGINUS- a hermaphrodite (one with both male and female reproductive organs)

13)[line 32]מי שחציו עבד וחציו בן חוריןMI SHE'CHETZYO EVED V'CHETZYO BEN CHORIN- a Nochri who had been jointly owned as a slave by two Jewish owners, one of whom had freed his half and one of whom had not

14)[line 44]"[וביום שמחתכם ונמועדיכם ובראשי חדשכם] ותקעתם בחצצרת על עלתיכם""[UV'YOM SIMCHASCHEM UV'MO'ADEICHEM UV'ROSHEI CHODSHEICHEM,] U'SEKATEM BA'CHATZOTZROS AL OLOSEICHEM"- "[And on your day of joy, your festival, and your Rosh Chodesh,] you shall blow trumpets over your Korbenos Olah..." (Bamidbar 10:10)

15)[line 47]שוה היובל לראש השנה לתקיעה ולברכותSHAVEH HA'YOVEL L'ROSH HASHANAH L'TEKI'AH VELA'BERACHOS- see Mishnah 26b and Background there, #64-65

16)[line 51]מוכרין לעולם וגואלין לעולםMOCHRIN L'OLAM V'GO'ALIN L'OLAM (BATEI AREI CHOMAH)

(a)Houses located in a city that had been walled at the time of Yehoshua's conquest of Eretz Yisrael are termed Batei Arei Chomah. If one sells such a house, he has the right to purchase it back within one year of selling it. If he does not redeem it during that time, then it is "Chalut" to (becomes the permanent property of) the purchaser (Vayikra 25:29-30; see Charts to Erchin #4, sections 4a and 4b).

(b)A Kohen who sells his house in such a city may repurchase it for as long as he likes; there is no time limit. It is not immediately clear what this Halachah has to do with Yovel. TOSFOS DH d'Tenan suggests that it may be that this Halachah does not apply during a period in which Klal Yisrael does not celebrate the Yovel year. Tosfos prefers an alternate Girsa (also mentioned by Rashi), however — that of "Makdishin l'Olam v'Go'alin l'Olam." This Girsa appears in the Mishnah in Erchin (26b), and refers to the right of a Kohen to repurchase his Sdei Achuzah (see Background to Bava Basra 72:2) that had been consecrated to Hekdesh and sold, even following Yovel.

17)[line 55]ומפיקMAPIK- lit. remove [from under an obligation]; enable another to fulfill a Mitzvah through his action

18)[line 57]כל הברכות כולןKOL HA'BERACHOS KULAN (TYPES OF BERACHOS)

(a)There are three categories into which all Berachos (blessings) fall: Birchos Nehenin, Birchos ha'Mitzvah, and Birchos Hoda'ah. All Berachos begin with the introductory phrase of "Baruch Atah HaSh-m Elokeinu, Melech ha'Olam..." — "Blessed are you HaSh-m our G-d, King of the World...."

(b)Birchos Nehenin are Berachos one recites before deriving physical benefit from the world. It is forbidden to derive physical benefit from this world without a Berachah; doing so is tantamount to stealing from HaSh-m. This category includes Berachos recited before consuming food and drink as well as those recited prior to enjoying a natural scent.

(c)Birchos ha'Mitzvah are those Berachos recited before performing a Mitzvah. They include the phrase, "Asher Kideshanu b'Mitzvosav v'Tzivanu..." — "Who has sanctified us with His commandments and commanded us...." This Berachah is recited before performing even a Mitzvah d'Rabanan, since we are instructed in the Torah to listen to the Chachamim.

(d)Birchos Hoda'ah are recited to thank HaSh-m or to praise Him for the beauty or wonder of the world that He created. One example of such a Berachah is that of "... Oseh Ma'aseh Bereishis" — "... Who performs the act of creation," recited over many natural phenomena such as lightning, earthquakes, and comets, among others.

19)[last line]מברכת הלחם וברכת הייןBIRCHAS HA'LECHEM U'VIRCHAS HA'YAYIN- the blessings recited over bread and wine; i.e., all Birchos Nehenin


20)[line 4]כי הוינן בי רב פפיKI HAVINAN BEI RAV PAPI- when we were in the house of Rav Papi

21a)[line 5]וכי הוה אתי אריסיה מדבראV'CHI HAVAH ASI ARISEI MI'DABRA- and when his sharecropper would come from the field

b)[line 6]הוה מקדש להוHAVAH MEKADESH LEHU- he would recite Kidush for him [without partaking of the wine]

22)[line 6]לא יפרוס אדם פרוסהLO YIFROS ADAM PERUSAH- one should not [make a Berachah on behalf of those assembled and then] pass out pieces


23a)[line 12]במקדשB'MIKDASH- in (a) the Beis ha'Mikdash (RASHI, BARTENURA, VILNA GA'ON); (b) Yerushalayim (RAMBAM, RIVEVAN Shekalim 3b)

b)[line 12]במדינהB'MEDINAH- (a) anywhere in Eretz Yisrael outside of the Beis ha'Mikdash (RASHI); (b) anywhere in Eretz Yisrael outside of Yerushalayim (RAMBAM, RIVEVAN Shekalim 3b, VILNA GA'ON); (c) in Yerushalayim (BARTENURA)

24)[line 16]ביבנהYAVNEH- the city of Yavneh, the first stop made by the Sanhedrin when it went into exile following the destruction of the Beis ha'Mikdash

25)[line 30]"[ובחדש השביעי באחד לחדש...] כל מלאכת עבדה לא תעשו...""[UVA'CHODESH HA'SHEVI'I B'ECHAD LA'CHODESH...] KOL MELECHES AVODAH LO SA'ASU..."- "[And in the seventh month on the first of the month ...] do not perform any creative Melachah..." (Bamidbar 29:1)

26)[line 31]ורדיית הפתREDIYAS HA'PAS- successfully removing a loaf of bread from the inside wall of an oven to which it had been stuck

27)[line 32]ואינה מלאכהEINAH MELACHAH- it is not a Melachah [that is prohibited mid'Oraisa, although it is prohibited mid'Rabanan]

28)[line 33]מישרא שריMISHRA SHARI- it is permitted [to blow Shofar on Shabbos]

29)[line 36]יטלנוYITLENU- take it

30)[line 37]ויעבירנו ד' אמות ברשות הרביםYA'AVIRENU ARBA AMOS BI'RESHUS HA'RABIM (HOTZA'AH)

(a)Hotza'ah is the last of the thirty-nine Avos Melachos of Shabbos. It involves either:

1.the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Yachid (private domain) to a Reshus ha'Rabim (public domain);

2.Hachnasah, which refers to the transferal of objects from a Reshus ha'Rabim to a Reshus ha'Yachid;

3.Ma'avir Arba Amos bi'Reshus ha'Rabim, which refers to carrying an object from one place in a Reshus ha'Rabim to another over a distance of at least four Amos;

4.Moshit, which involves passing an object from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another through a Reshus ha'Rabim (as described in the Mishnah on Shabbos 96a).

All of these are Biblical prohibitions.

(b)The Chachamim enacted that one may not perform Hotza'ah from one Reshus ha'Yachid to another.

(c)Additionally, the Chachamim created a new designation for an area termed a Karmelis. A Karmelis bears similarities to both a Reshus ha'Rabim and a Reshus ha'Yachid, although it is not quite either of them. The Rabanan decreed that a Karmelis has the status of both a Reshus ha'Rabim and a Reshus ha'Yachid, whichever is more stringent given the situation. This is because one may confuse it with either of the two Reshuyos. Some examples of a Karmelis are a sea, a desert, and an area in Reshus ha'Rabim that is at least four by four Tefachim wide but not higher than ten Tefachim, such as a raised platform, pole, or fenced in area.

31a)[line 37]טעמא דלולבTA'AMA D'LULAV- the reason for [why the Chachamim forbade taking the] Lulav [and other Minim (see Background to 30:18) on the first day of Sukos when it falls on Shabbos, even though there is no Melachah involved]

b)[line 38]טעמא דמגילהTA'AMA D'MEGILAH- the reason for [why the Chachamim forbade reading the] Megilah [on Purim when it falls on Shabbos, even though there is no Melachah involved]

32)[line 39]כל העריםKOL HE'ARIM- all of the cities [surrounding Yavneh]

33)[line 39]מתכנסיןMISKANSIN- gathered

34)[line 40]לבני בתירהBNEI BESEIRAH- the sons of Beseirah, who were the leaders of the generation

35)[line 40]נתקעNISKA- let us blow [the Shofar]

36)[line 40]נדוןNADUN- let us [first] deliberate [whether or not we should disallow Shofar blowing on Shabbos lest one transgress the prohibition against Hotza'ah]

37)[line 40]נתקע ואחר כך נדוןNISKA V'ACHAR KACH NADUN- let us first blow and then deliberate. This may be related to the Halachah that concerning a prohibition that it mid'Rabanan, one acts first and asks questions that he may have only later (Eruvin 67b).

38)[line 42]קרןKEREN- a horn; the Shofar (see 26a)

39)[line 42]ואין משיבין לאחר מעשהEIN MESHIVIN L'ACHAR MA'ASEH- one does not ask questions after the fact [since, should the ruling turn out to be that one should not blow Shofar on Shabbos, it appears as if Beis Din has acted incorrectly]

40)[line 44]בי דינא דאקראיBEI DINA D'AKRAI- a temporary Beis Din [in whose proximity those who responded to Rebbi Elazar allow the blowing of the Shofar on Shabbos, whereas the Tana Kama requires any permanent Beis Din]