ROSH HASHANAH 26-30 - Dedicated Dr. Shalom Kelman of Baltimore, MD. May the Zechus of helping thousands study the Torah provide a Refu'ah Sheleimah for his father, Dr. Herbert (Isser Chayim ben Itta Fruma) Kelman.

[27a - 44 lines; 27b - 38 lines]

1)[line 5]ותרי קלי מי משתמעי?TREI KALI MI MISHTAMA'I?- are two [concomitant] sounds able to be heard?

2)[line 5]זכור ושמור בדיבור אחד נאמרוZACHOR V'SHAMOR B'DIBUR ECHAD NE'EMRU- The account of the Ten Commandments appears twice in the Torah, once in Parshas Yisro (Shemos 20:1-14) and again in Parshas va'Eschanan (Devarim 5:6-19). In Yisro, the fourth commandment is to "Remember the day of Shabbos to consecrate it," whereas in va'Eschanan the verse states, "Guard the day of Shabbos to consecrate it." Chazal teach that both "Zachor" and "Shamor" were uttered by HaSh-m at the same time.

3)[line 7]לכך מאריך בשופרL'KACH MA'ARICH B'SHOFAR- (the Gemara answers:) this is why the Shofar blast is extended [so that one is able to hear it alone]

4a)[line 10]בראשונהRISHONAH- the first [of two successive Teki'os, one after a Teru'ah and the second before the next Teru'ah]

b)[line 11]בשניהSHENIYAH- the second [of two successive Teki'os, one after a Teru'ah and the second before the next Teru'ah]

5)[line 12]תיסלק ליה בתרתיTISALEK LEI B'TARTEI- [although the end of the first blast and the beginning of the second one are missing] let this [double-length blast] count as two [Teki'os]

6)[line 12]פסוקי תקיעתא מהדדיPESUKEI TEKI'ASA ME'HADADI- splitting one [long] blast into two

7a)[line 13]הבורBOR- a well dug in hard earth

b)[line 14]הדותDUS- a well dug in soft earth that has been lined with a wall of stones that rises above the surface of the ground. A cover is generally placed over a Dus (BI'UR HALACHAH Orach Chayim 587:1, explaining the opinions of Rashi and the Rambam).

c)[line 14]הפיטסPITAS- (O.F. ponton) a large barrel

8)[line 15]הברהHAV'ARAH- the echo

9)[line 16]ליפוקLEI'PUK- let him fulfill [the Mitzvah]

10)[line 16]מקמי דליערבב קלאMEKAMEI D'LI'ARBEV KALA- before the sound [of the Shofar blast] becomes mixed [with the sound of the echo]

11)[line 20]ואחד מתרגםV'ECHAD METARGEM- and one translates [into Aramaic in between each verse]

12)[line 23]יהיב דעתיהYAHIV DA'ATEI- he concentrates [upon the individual voices]

13)[line 26]כינופיאKINUFYA- a public gathering

14)[line 27]"עשה לך שתי חצוצרת כסף [... והיו לך למקרא העדה...]""ASEH LECHA SHTEI CHATZOTZROS KESEF [... V'HAYU LECHA L'MIKRA HA'EDAH...]"- "Fashion for yourself two silver trumpets [... and they will be for you to call the community...]" (Bamidbar 10:2)

15)[line 27]התורה חסה על ממונן של ישראלHA'TORAH CHASAH AL MAMONAN SHEL YISRAEL- the Torah cares for the money of Yisrael [and therefore discourages spending money unnecessarily] (see Insights to Menachos 76:2)

16)[line 29]למיעבד עובדא כמתניתיןL'MEI'AVAD UVDA K'MASNISIN- to act according to the description [of trumpets blown along with the Shofar of Rosh Hashanah] in our Mishnah

17)[line 30]בגבוליןGEVULIN- the boundaries [of Eretz Yisrael; namely, anywhere other than the Beis ha'Mikdash]

18)[line 31]וכן הנהיג רבי חלפתא בציפוריV'CHEN HINHIG REBBI CHALAFTA B'TZIPORI- and so Rebbi Chalafta acted in Tzipori [according to the description of trumpets blown along with the Shofar of Rosh Hashanah in our Mishnah]

19)[line 32]בסיכניSICHNI- a city north of Jotapata in the Galil; also Sichnin. Both Rebbi Chananya ben Teradyon and Rebbi Yehoshua served as spiritual leaders there.

20)[line 33]בשערי מזרח ובהר הביתB'SHA'AREI MIZRACH UV'HAR HA'BAYIS- (a) at the eastern gates of the Temple Mount; (b) at the eastern gates [of the Beis ha'Mikdash] as well as on the Temple Mount

21)[line 37]כמאן מצלינן האידנא...?K'MAN MATZLINAN HA'IDNA...?- according to whose opinion do we currently [mention in our] prayers...?

22)[line 38]בתשרי נברא העולםB'TISHREI NIVRA HA'OLAM

(a)There is a Tanaic disagreement regarding when the world was created. Rebbi Yehoshua is of the opinion that HaSh-m created the world and its luminaries in the position state of Nisan. Rebbi Eliezer maintains that the world was created in Tishrei (Daf 11a). TOSFOS (8a DH l'Tekufos) and the RAN (3a in the Rif) assert that Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Eliezer are referring to when man - the penultimate purpose of the institution of the world - was created. Rebbi Eliezer therefore rules that the world itself was created on the twenty-fifth of Elul, while Rebbi Yehoshua maintains that it was created on the twenty-fifth of Adar.

(b)There are a number of practical differences between these two opinions. The sun and moon appear to more or less follow each other through the heavens, on a path known as the ecliptic. They do not move at the same rate, however. The moon completes a monthly cycle of waxing and waning approximately every twenty-nine and a half days, resulting in a twelve-month year of approximately 354 days. The solar year, on the other hand, consists of approximately 365 1/4 days. The half-year difference between the reckoning of Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Eliezer therefore results in different computations for when the month completes its monthly cycle, when the sun completes its yearly cycle, and what the difference between the two cycles is at any given point over the course of the year (see Point by Point Summary of Tosfos to DH l'Tekufos, 8a).

(c)We calculate the lunar year based upon the assumption that the moon began its cycle in Tishrei of year one, like the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer. The solar year, however, is calculated from Nisan, according to the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer (Rosh Hashanah 12a). This is because although we rule that the world was created in Nisan, the Jewish lunar year begins from Tishrei.

(d)A practical consideration of when the sun was created is when to recite Birkas ha'Chamah. Birkas ha'Chamah is a unique blessing recited every twenty-eight years upon the occasion of the sun returning to the location (relative to the revolution and rotational cycles of the Earth) in which it was created. According to the opinion of Rebbi Yehoshua, it takes place on Wednesday the fourth of Nisan, whereas according to that of Rebbi Eliezer, it takes place in Tishrei.

(d)Rabeinu Tam (TOSFOS DH k'Man) explains that both of these opinions are correct. It is possible to explain that HaSh-m conceived of the plan to create the world in Tishrei but did not actually do so until Nisan. A precedent for the concept of HaSh-m going through a "planning stage" is found in Eruvin (18a), where the Gemara informs us that HaSh-m planned on creating man and woman separately and ended up creating them as one joint being (until He separated them).

23)[line 40]כי קתני אשאראKI KETANI A'SHARA- when [the Mishnah] stated [that they are similar it was] referring to all other [aspects of the prayer]

24)[last line]שנסדקSHE'NISDAK- that cracked (a) in half (RASHI); (b) along the entire length of one side (TOSFOS DH Shofar)

25)[last line]ודבקוV'DIBKO- and one glued it together


26a)[line 1]ניקבNIKEV- if it developed a hole

b)[line 1]וסתמוV'SASMO- and one plugged it

27)[line 9]ארוךA ROCH- if [a Shofar] was long

28a)[line 10]גרדוGERDO- if one scraped away [some of the thickness of a Shofar]

b)[line 10]והעמידו על גלדוV'HE'EMIDO AL GILDO- and left but a thin shell

29)[line 16]אם קול פנימי שמעIM KOL PENIMI SHAMA- if the sound of the inner [Shofar] is heard (that is, if he blew the inner Shofar)

30)[line 20]דהפכיה ככתונאD'HAFCHEI K'CHITUNA- that he turned it inside out [through heating it] as [one does] a cloak

31)[line 22]"והעברת [שופר תרועה...]""V'HA'AVARTA [SHOFAR TERU'AH...]"- "And you shall blow a Shofar blast..." (Vayikra 25:9) - The word "v'Ha'avarta" literally means "and you shall cause to pass."

32)[line 22]דרך העברתוDERECH HA'AVARASO- the way in which it was carried [by the animal from which it came]

33)[line 22]הוסיף עליו כל שהוא... פסולHOSIF ALAV KOL SHEHU... PASUL- if he added even the slightest amount to it[s length]... it is invalid. TOSFOS DH Tzipehu suggests that this may invalidate a Shofar only when it was otherwise shorter than the minimum required size.

34)[line 25]והוא שנשתייר רובוV'HU SHE'NISHTAYER RUBO- this is true only if most [of the Shofar] remains [in place after accounting for what is missing from the hole]

35a)[line 28]נסדק לאורכוNISDAK L'ORKO- if it cracked along its [entire] length [and was not glued together]

b)[line 28]לרוחבוL'RACHVO- its [entire] width [such that it falls into two pieces]

36)[line 30]צרודTZARUR- (O.F. rois) hoarse

37)[line 31]קדחוKADCHO- if one bored a hole in [the narrow end of a Shofar through which to blow]

38)[line 32]כולהו נמי מיקדח קדחו להו!KULHU NAMI MIKDACH KADCHO LEHU!- all [Shofaros] have holes bored through their [narrow ends, since they are naturally sealed at that end]!

39)[line 32]בזכרותוZACHRUSO- the bone growing from the head of the animal around which the Shofar formed

40)[line 33]מין במינו חוצץMIN B'MINO CHOTZETZ- [that even though this bone is from] the same [body] part [of the animal, it nevertheless] constitutes an invalidating obstruction

41)[line 36]איכא דרמי להו מירמאIKA D'RAMI LEHU MIRMA- some [instead of teaching that Rav Huna began by explaining the difference between the Mishnah and Beraisa, first] presented [them as] an [apparent] contradiction