ROSH HASHANAH 21-25 - Dedicated in memory of Max (Meir Menachem ben Shlomo ha'Levi) Turkel, by his children Eddie and Lawrence and his wife Jean Turkel/Rafalowicz. Max was a warm and loving husband and father and is missed dearly by his family and friends. His Yahrzeit is 5 Teves.

[21a - 29 lines; 21b - 40 lines]

1a)[line 1]תרי ירחי חסיריTREI YARCHEI CHASEIREI- if [the] two months [of Tamuz, which is usually twenty-nine days long, and Av, which is usually thirty days long; or Teves, which is usually twenty-nine days long, and Shevat, which is usually thirty days,] had both been only twenty-nine days long

b)[line 1]קלא אית להוKALA IS LEHU- the report would have reached [communities everywhere before Rosh Hashanah or Pesach]

2)[line 2]בחדסר בתשריCHADSAR B'TISHREI- [what the those who lived in Bavel thought was] the eleventh of Tishrei

3a)[line 2]בסים תבשילא דבבלאיBASIM TAVSHILA D'VAVLA'EI- the cooked dishes of the Babylonians are sweet

b)[line 3]ביומא רבה דמערבאB'YOMA RABA D'MA'ARAVA- on Yom ha'Kipurim (lit. the great day) of Eretz Yisrael (i.e., you are eating now, but it is really Yom ha'Kipurim!)

4)[line 4]אסהידAS'HID- testify [that today is Yom ha'Kipurim and we will fast for the remainder of the day]

5)[line 4]לא שמעתי מפי בית דין מקודשLO SHAMAITI MI'PI BEIS DIN MEKUDASH- I did not hear from the mouth of Beis Din that Rosh Chodesh was proclaimed. Although it was impossible for Rosh Chodesh to have been on any other day, as the only other possibility - the thirtieth day of Elul - had already passed and was not declared Rosh Chodesh when Ula left, the Halachah is that one must hear the actual pronouncement in order to be considered a messenger of Beis Din to relay the proper timing of Nisan and Tishrei (21b).

6)[line 5]מכריזMACHRIZ- announced

7a)[line 5]דמטו שלוחי ניסןD'MATU SHELUCHEI NISAN- that the messengers of [Beis Din relaying the proper time of Rosh Chodesh] Nisan are able to arrive at [before Pesach, when they have twelve travel days (fourteen days before Pesach, minus two days of Shabbos)]

b)[line 6]ולא מטו שלוחי תשריV'LO MATU SHELUCHEI TISHREI- and the messengers of [Beis Din relaying the proper time of Rosh Chodesh] Tishrei are unable to arrive at [before Sukos, when they have only ten travel days (fourteen days before Sukos, minus two days of Shabbos, Rosh Hashanah, and Yom ha'Kipurim)

8)[line 8]אתראASRA- land

9)[line 11]ואיקפדIKPID- became upset [with them, as they were his students]

10)[line 14]יתיב בתעניתא תרי יומיYASIV B'TA'ANISA TREI YOMEI- fasted [on Yom ha'Kipurim] for two days [straight, since he feared that Beis Din in Yerushalayim had added a day to the month of Elul]

11a)[line 15]זימנא חדאZIMNA CHADA- one time

b)[line 15]אשתכח כוותיהISHTAKACH KAVASEI- it transpired [that Beis Din had, indeed, added a thirtieth day to Elul] as he [had feared, and only he had fasted on the day that had actually been Yom ha'Kipurim]

12)[line 18]מדמהריאDAMHARYA- the name of a town in Bavel

13)[line 18]דם תהא אחריתוDAM TEHEI ACHARISO- the end [result of your report] will be blood (i.e., my death) [for I am unable to fast for two days straight]. Rav Nachman was making a play on the name of the messenger's town: "DAM teHei achaRIso."

14)[line 19]"קלים היו רדפנו [מנשרי שמים]""KALIM HAYU RODFEINU [MI'NISHREI SHAMAYIM...]"- "Those who pursued us were swifter [than eagles of the sky...]" (Eichah 4:19)

15)[line 20]כד חזית דמשכה תקופת טבתKAD CHAZIS D'MASHCHAH TEKUFAS TEVES- when you see that winter (the period beginning with the winter solstice that lasts for three solar months, according to the opinion of Rebbi Yosi in Sanhedrin 13a) extends

16)[line 21]שיתסרSHITSAR- the sixteenth

17)[line 22]עברה לההיא שתאIBRAH L'HA'HI SHATA (SHANAH ME'UBERES)

See Background to 6:29.

18)[line 22]ולא תחוש להV'LO SACHUSH LAH- and do not worry [that you are ignoring the majority opinion and following that of Acherim, who maintain that ensuring that Pesach occurs in the springtime is enough reason to declare a leap year]

19)[line 23]"שמור את חדש אביב [ועשית פסח]""SHAMOR ES CHODESH HA'AVIV, [V'ASISA PESACH ...]"- "Observe the month of Aviv (spring), and offer the Pesach sacrifice...." (Devarim 16:1) - Rav Huna bar Avin interpreted this verse to imply, "Guard the month of Aviv, so that the Pesach sacrifice is offered therein...."

20)[line 23]אביב של תקופהAVIV SHEL TEKUFAH- the solar season of spring

21)[line 25]נחותי ימאNECHUSEI YAMA- seafarers

22)[line 25]אתוןATUN- you (plural)

23)[line 26]בקביעא דירחאKEVI'A D'YARCHA- when the month has been declared [by Beis Din]

24)[line 26]סיהרא דמשלים ליומאSIHARA D'MASHLIM L'YOMA- that the moon sets as the day begins

25)[line 27]בעירו חמיראBA'IRU CHAMIRA (CHAMETZ: BI'UR CHAMETZ)

(a)See Background to Pesachim 2:21.

(b)Rav Nachman instructed sailors to burn their Chametz on the day following the night in which the moon set at sunrise, since that signified that it was the fourteenth of Nisan.

26a)[line 28]בחמיסרCHAMEISAR- the fifteenth

b)[line 28]מארביסרARBEISAR- the fourteenth

27)[last line]דמגלו להו עלמאMIGLU LEHU ALMA- the world (that is, the entire horizon) is revealed to them (see Insights)



(a)See Background to 18:21.

(d)Our Mishnah discusses the permissibility of traveling to Beis Din on Shabbos in order to testify regarding the new moon, even if such a trip involves desecration of Shabbos.

29)[line 3]לסוריאSURYA- Syria; this refers to certain areas of present-day Syria conquered by David ha'Melech

30)[line 5]תקנת הקרבןTAKANAS HA'KORBAN- [the need to know] when to offer the Korban [Musaf of Rosh Chodesh]

31)[line 12]"אלה מועדי ה' [מקראי קדש] אשר תקראו אתם במועדם""ELEH MO'ADEI HASH-M, [MIKRA'EI KODESH,] ASHER TIKRE'U OSAM B'MOADAM"- "These are the festivals of HaSh-m, [occasions of designated holiness], that you shall proclaim them in their time." (Vayikra 23:4) - Our Gemara explains that "their time" implies that this should be accomplished even if the performance of Melachah on Shabbos is necessary.

32a)[line 13]עד שיתקדשוAD SHE'YISKADSHU- until [Beis Din] proclaims [the month through witnesses]

b)[line 14]עד שיתקיימוAD SHE'YISKAIMU- until [Beis Din] upholds [the correct timing of the month through messengers]

33)[line 21]שנראה בעלילSHE'NIR'EH BA'ALIL- the [new moon] is seen clearly

34)[line 23]אין מחללין עליו את השבתEIN MECHALELIN ALAV ES HA'SHABBOS- Shabbos should not be desecrated [for surely those in Yerushalayim have seen it as well and this testimony is not necessary]

35)[line 25]זוגZUG- pair[s of witnesses]

36)[line 26]מכשילן לעתיד לבאMACHSHILAN L'ASID LA'VO- you will have discouraged them [from coming] in the future

37)[line 28]דמיגליD'MIGLI- of being revealed

38)[line 29]"אמרות ה' אמרות טהורות כסף צרוף בעליל לארץ מזוקק שבעתים""IMAROS HASH-M AMAROS TEHOROS, KESEF TZARUF BA'ALIL LA'ARETZ, MEZUKAK SHIV'ASAYIM"- "The utterances of HaSh-m are pure utterances, purified silver [whose quality is] revealed to the earth, refined seven-times-sevenfold." (Tehilim 12:7) - The seven times seven referred to in this verse is interpreted by our Gemara to refer to the forty-nine gates of perception achieved by Moshe Rabeinu when he accepted the Torah.

39)[line 32]"[מה אנוש כי תזכרנו...] ותחסרהו מעט מאלקים [וכבוד והדר תעטרהו]""[MAH ENOSH KI SIZKERENU...] VA'TECHASREIHU ME'AT ME'ELOKIM, [V'CHAVOD V'HADAR T'ATREIHU]"- "[What is man, that you should remember him, and a human being that you should recall him?] And [yet] you have lessened him slightly than angels, [and crowned him with honor and glory]." (Tehilim 8:6) - From this verse it is clear that slightly more exists than what man can achieve; it follows therefore that there must be fifty possible levels of perception.

40)[line 33]"בקש קהלת למצוא דברי חפץ וכתוב ישר דברי אמת""BIKESH KOHELES LIMTZO DIVREI CHEFETZ, V'CHASUV YOSHER DIVREI EMES"- "Koheles (Shlomo ha'Melech) searched to find desirable words, and properly written words of truth." (Koheles 12:10) - Rav and Shmuel read the latter part of this verse to mean, "... however, words of truth had already been written."

41)[line 38]בעדים... בהתראהEDIM... HASRA'AH

(a)Should one transgress a negative commandment for which the punishment is the death penalty or Malkus (lashes), he does not receive this punishment unless his action is observed by at least two valid witnesses and he receives a proper Hasra'ah (warning). The Hasra'ah may be administered by either the witnesses themselves or by any other bystander. The warning must identify the action by name, categorize it as a sin, and specify the specific punishment for which the offender will be liable to.

(b)The offender must then clearly state that he has understood and accepted the information, and wishes to sin nonetheless. Should he merely remain silent, nods his head, or even state, "I know," he is liable to neither the death penalty nor Malkus mid'Oraisa (RAMBAM Hilchos Sanhedrin 12:2). He is, however, subject to Malkus mid'Rabanan (ibid. 18:5).

42)[last line]"על פי שנים עדים [או שלשה עדים יומת המת...]""AL PI SHENAYIM EDIM [O SHELSOSHAH EDIM YUMAS HA'MES...]"- "Upon the testimony of two witnesses [or three witnesses shall he who is condemned to death die...]" (Devarim 17:6)