(a)The Pasuk in Emor writes "Shor O Seh Saru'a v'Kalut ... Nedavah Ta'aseh Oso". What does 'Nedavah' mean in this context?
(b)What prohibition do we learn from here?
(c)According to the Rabanan of Rebbi Yehudah, one will only have transgressed an Aseh. Seeing as this is a prohibition, what makes it an Aseh, and not a Lo Sa'aseh?
(d)According to Rebbi Yehudah, "va'Yedaber Hash-m El Moshe Leimor" implies a Lav. In which two ways can this be understood?
(a)Nedavah, in the context of the Pasuk "Shor O Seh Saru'a v'Kalut ... Nedavah Ta'aseh Oso" - means Hekdesh Bedek ha'Bayis.
(b)We learn from there - the prohibition of declaring Hekdesh to Bedek ha'Bayis, any animal that is fit to be brought on the Mizbe'ach (i.e. an unblemished Behemah Tehorah).
(c)According to the Rabanan of Rebbi Yehudah, one will only have transgressed the Aseh of "Nedavah Ta'aseh Oso" - because it is a 'Lav ha'Ba Michelal Aseh' (which is an Aseh), and they do not agree with Rebbi Yehudah's Derashah on "Leimor".
(d)According to Rebbi Yehudah, "Leimor" is an acronym: it reads either 'Lav Amur' (a Lav is said), or 'Lav Emor' (say to them that is a Lav).
(a)When does the water used by a Matzah baker to wash his hands not need to be poured out on a slope?
(a)The water used by a Matzah baker to wash his hands need not be poured out on a slope - if there is not sufficient water to gather in a pool after it has been poured out.
(a)What was the reaction of the residents of Papunya when Rav Masna taught them to use 'Mayim she'Lanu' for baking Matzos shel Mitzvah?
(b)What did he really mean, and what is the reason for it?
(c)The women (who commonly did the Matzah-baking in those days) were forbidden to bake in the sun (this prohibition is not confined to a sunny day. See Rosh Siman 31). May a woman use water that was heated (but which has now cooled down) ...
1. ... by fire?
2. ... by the sun?
3. ... by a copper urn which was not actually heated now?
(d)What else must she be careful ...
1. ... not to do until she has finished baking?
2. ... to do whilst preparing the dough for baking?
(a)When Rav Masna taught the residents of Papunya to use 'Mayim she'Lanu' for baking Matzos shel Mitzvah - they thought he meant that in order to bake Matzos, their own water was required; so the following day, they all brought him their water for him to bake Matzos for them.
(b)What he really meant was that the water for Matzah-baking must have been drawn before the previous nightfall and left overnight. The reason for this is because, due to the cycle of the sun in Nisan, the water in the natural springs and fountains is hot, and must therefore be left overnight to cool down. See also Rosh, Siman 30.
(c)A woman is not permitted to use water that was heated (even after it has cooled down) ...
1. ... by fire,
2. ... by the sun,
3. ... by a copper urn which was not actually heated now (since the inside of such an urn tends to be constantly hot).
(d)She must also be careful ...
1. ... not to stop working on the dough until she has finished baking;
2. ... and to use two different containers of water whilst she is preparing the dough for baking, one for anointing the Matzos, and the other to cool her hands.
(a)If a woman kneaded the Matzah dough with hot water (even by mistake - see Rosh Siman 31, Rav Ashi forbids the dough on Pesach due to a Knas (a fine for disregarding Chazal's instructions). How does Mar Zutra prove that it is permitted, from the Din of Lesisah which we learned above (on 40a)?
(b)On what grounds does Rav Ashi reject this proof?
(c)Why then according to Rav Ashi, did they not also forbid dough prepared by a gentile (as long as no signs of Chimutz have appeared in it)?
(a)The Beraisa forbids Lesisah of barley. Nevertheless, if Lesisah was made, the Matzah is permitted, provided the barley did not split (in which case, it will be Chametz) - So we see, says Mar Zutra, that, in a similar case, Chazal did not fine the transgressor.
(b)This is no proof, Rav Ashi replied - because one cannot bring a proof from one case to another. Sometimes Chazal will decree in one case, but not in another, even when the two cases are similar).
(c)Chazal did not forbid dough prepared by a gentile - since there, no-one did an Isur.
Hadran Alach, 'Kol Sha'ah'
Perek v'Elu Ovrin
(a)'ve'Elu Ovrin ba'Pesach: Kutach ha'Bavli' ... What does 've'Elu Ovrin' mean?
(b)Kutach ha'Bavli comprises whey (a by-product of milk), Sedomis-salt and bread (that eventually becomes moldy). Which three harmful side-effects result from its three ingredients?
(c)What three harmful side-effects result from eating 1. bread made from coarse flour, 2. fresh beer and 3. raw vegetables?
(d)Will one suffer from eating the latter just once?
(a)'ve'Elu Ovrin (Aleihen)' means that one transgresses Bal Yera'eh and Bal Yimatzei on the following products' (according to Rashi, but there is no Lav d'Oraisa to eat them, whereas according to Rabeinu Tam, there is a Lav to eat them, but no Lav of Bal Yera'eh and Bal Yimatzei - See Tosfos DH 've'Elu'.)
(b)Kutach ha'Bavli blocks the heart (because of the whey), blinds the eyes (because of the Sedomis-salt) and weakens the body (because of the moldy bread).
(c)Bread made from coarse flour, fresh beer and raw vegetables (such as leek, onions and lettuce) - all cause excessive excrement, the body to grow bent and reduce one's eye-sight by one five-hundreth ...
(d)... but only if one eats them in large quantities, regularly.
(a)Bread made from fine flour, fat meat and old wine have the opposite effect of the three foods mentioned above (though modern medicine may well not agree with this) What is meant by ...
1. ... fat meat?
2. ... old wine?
(b)Most food that is good for one limb is harmful to another. The three above-mentioned are exceptions; they are good for the whole body. Which other two kinds of foods are generally healthy, and have no harmful side-effects?
1. Fat meat - refers to a young goat that has not yet given birth.
2. Old wine - means at least a three year old vintage-wine.
(b)Moist ginger and long peppers, in addition to the above two, are generally healthy, and have no harmful side-effects.
(a)Why is barley-beer called 'Shechar ha'Madi'?
(b)What is 'Chametz ha'Edomi'?
(c)What does Chametz ha'Edomi have to do with Edom, and what is the connection with the Pasuk in Yechezkel "Imal'ah ha'Charavah", and the Pasuk in Toldos "u'Le'om mi'Le'om Ye'amatz"?
(a)Barley-beer is called 'Shechar ha'Madi' - because, in ancient times, they would make beer purely from dates, and it was the Medians who first added barley-water.
(b)'Chometz ha'Edomi' - is wine into which they placed barley, in order to make it turn sour (to be used as vinegar).
(c)Initially, when the Beis Hamikdash stood, a Jew's wine, on the merit of the Nesachim, would not turn sour unless barley was added. After the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash however, this blessing was transferred to the Edumians (the Romans). This concept stems from the Pesukim "Imal'ah ha'Charavah" (Yechezkel) and "u'Le'om mi'Le'om Ye'amatz" (in Toldos - both implying that Yerushalayim's downfall signifies Edom's rise to power (and vice-versa).
(a)Why was the wine-vinegar that they used to buy from an Am ha'Aretz in Yehudah, Patur from Demai, but Chayav in the time of Rebbi Yehudah? What changed?
(b)How do we initially reconcile this with Rebbi Yehudah himself, who rules that wine made from dregs must be Ma'asered?
(c)In the second answer, the Amei ha'Aretz are indeed suspect of not Ma'asering dregs. How do we then reconcile Rebbi Yehudah's two seemingly contradictory statements?
(d)Why do the Rabanan exempt even wine made from dregs from Ma'aser.
(a)The wine-vinegar that they used to buy from an Am ha'Aretz in Yehudah, was Patur from Demai - because it was sure to have been manufactured from dregs (since their wine as such, did not turn sour, as we just explained). It was Chayav however, in the time of Rebbi Yehudah - because by that time, the above-mentioned curse was already in effect, and their poor-quality wine was bound to turn sour quickly.
(b)Initially, we explain that really, vinegar made from dregs must be Ma'asered. However, in the first Beraisa, Rebbi Yehudah exempts it from Ma'aser, because he is speaking about vinegar that one bought from an Am-ha'Aretz, who does not refrain from Ma'asering it since it is so cheap (and it is only by things like good expensive wine and fruit, that he scrimps by not separating Ma'asros).
(c)In the second answer - Rebbi Yehudah differentiates between wine that is made from grape-pits (which is Patur from Ma'aser, as in the first Beraisa) and wine that is made from the actual dregs (which is Chayav - as in the second) - because he goes after the appearance and the taste.
(d)The Rabanan of Rebbi Yehudah, who do not go after the appearance and the taste, exempt even the latter from Ma'aser, since it is not real wine.
(a)According to Rav Yosef, Zeisum ha'Mitzri comprises one third barley, one third, saffron and one third, salt. Rav Papa replaces barley for something else. What is it, and how will we remember who says which?
(b)How did they prepare Zeisum ha'Mitzri, and when would they take it?
(c)What purpose did it serve?
(d)Who is well-advised to keep away from it?
(a)Rav Papa replaces barley with wheat. It is easy to remember who says what, because barley (Sa'ari) contains a 'Sin', a letter with the same sound as the first letter in Rav Yosef's name. Alternatively, the word 'Sisni' (a certain type of vessel) will serve the same purpose, because the two 'Samech's' that it contains are reminiscent of the 'Samech' and the 'Sin' in 'Yosef' and 'Sa'ari'.
(b)They would first soak the barley, the saffron and the salt, then roast and grind them, to be drunk between Pesach and Shavu'os.
(c)It would loosen the bowels of someone who was constipated, and constipate someone whose bowels were loose.
(d)It is lethal for the sick and for pregnant women.
(a)'Zoman shel Tzava'in' is described as 'Mei Subin (Rashi) d'Tzav'i Behu Lavah (or Lacha)'. What does this mean?
(b)What is 'Amilan shel Tabachin', and what is its use?
(c)'Kolan shel Sofrin' is described as 'Pirura d'Ushchefi'. What is that and why then, does the Tana call it 'Kolan shel Sofrin'.
(a)'Mei Subin (Rashi) d'Tzav'i Behu Lavah (or Lacha)' - is water in which bran has been soaked and that is used by the dyers.
(b)'Amilan shel Tabachin' - is bread made from wheat that grew to less than a third of its maximum growth, and that is placed in the pot to draw the scum.
(c)'Pirura d'Ushchefi' is a glue used by the leather-makers, and into which rye-flour is placed. It is called 'Kolan shel Sofrin' because the scribes also used to use it to stick their papers (parchments).
(a)Rav Shimi from Chuzna'a explains 'Kolan shel Sofrin' as 'Tipulan shel Benos Ashirim'. What does this mean?
(b)The Gemara however, refutes his contention on the basis of Rebbi Chiya, who quoted a Beraisa 'Arba'ah Minei Medinah, u'Sheloshah Minei Umnus'. What exactly, does this mean?
(a)'Tipulan shel Bnos Ashirim' - means the flour preparation that the wealthy people used on their young daughters, in order to remove excessive hair. What remained, they would give to the poor children's Rebbes (who were known as Sofrim) to use on their daughters, which explains why the Mishnah calls it 'Kolan shel Sofrin'.
(b)The Gemara refutes this contention on the basis of Rebbi Chiya, who quoted a Beraisa 'Arba'ah Minei Medinah, u'Sheloshah Minei Umnus' - meaning that our Mishnah lists four things connected with a country ('Kutach ha'Bavli, Shechar ha'Madi, Chometz ha'Edomi and Zeisum ha'Mitzri'), and three connected with trades ('Zoman shel Tzeva'im, Amilan shel Tabachim, Kolan shel Sofrin'); according to Rav Shimi from Chuzna'a's interpretation in 'Kolan shel Sofrin', we will not have three things connected with trade, only two?