(a)Rava rules after Pesach like Rebbi Yochanan and Shmuel 9who hold like Rebbi Shimon). Does Rebbi Shimon permit Chametz after Pesach b'Hana'ah?
(b)Does he also forbid a mixture of Chametz?
(c)And how about a mixture that contains Chametz which a Jew had retained whole during Pesach and which fell into the mixture only after Pesach?
(d)According to Rava, who rules on Pesach, like Rav and Rebbi Yochanan, what is the difference between Chametz and other Isurim?
(a)Rebbi Shimon only permits Chametz after Pesach b'Hana'ah mid'Oraisa - but he agrees that it is Asur mid'Rabanan.
(b)The Isur d'Rabanan only applies however, to Chametz b'En (actual Chametz) - but not to a mixture.
(c)Nor does it make any difference whether the Chametz fell in before Pesach, on Pesach or after Pesach - in all cases, Rebbi Shimon permits a mixture of Chametz after Pesach.
(d)According to Rava, who rules on Pesach, like Rav and Rebbi Yochanan - a Mashehu of Chametz is Asur on Pesach, even by Min b'she'Eino Mino, whereas by other kinds, Min b'she'Eino Mino is Batel b'Shishim.
(a)Rav declared that all Chametz pots must be destroyed before Pesach. Why can they not be kept until after Pesach and used with different kinds of foods than those with which they were used before?
(b)For which two reasons is the Halachah not like Rav?
(c)Shmuel permits pots after Pesach, in keeping with his earlier ruling. What warning did he issue the potters of Sura?
(d)Seeing as he rules like Rebbi Shimon anyway, why did he word the warning the way he did?
(a)Rav decrees that, if one were to be permitted to keep pots over Pesach to use with different kinds of foods than those with which they were used before - they might come to use them even with the same kinds of foods, which, according to him, is intrinsically forbidden.
(b)The Halachah is not like Rav because - 1. Rav holds like Rebbi Yehudah , who forbids Chametz after Pesach b'Hana'ah, whereas we rule like Rebbi Shimon, who permits it; and 2. because Rav holds 'Nosen Ta'am li'Fegam (food that is absorbed in the walls of the pot, and which spoil the taste of other foods, when they are exuded), Asur', whereas we hold 'Nosen Ta'am li'Fegam Mutar'.
(c)Shmuel warned the potters of Sura that, unless they lowered their prices, he would rule publicly like Rebbi Shimon, permitting the use of pots after Pesach.
(d)When that incident took place, Shmuel happened to be in Sura, Rav's town. Consequently, he did not have the authority to rule like Rebbi Shimon (since Rav followed the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah) under normal circumstances - nor is it clear whether he had the authority to do so now; maybe he was only threatening them.
(a)What did Rava bar Ahila'i rule with regard to that oven which they had smeared with fat, and why was he so strict?
(b)The Beraisa forbids bread that was kneaded with milk. What does the Tana say about an oven that was smeared with fat, and what does Rava bar Ahila'i say to that?
(a)In the case of the oven which they had smeared with fat - Rava bar Ahila'i ruled that, not only was it forbidden to bake bread in that oven again, ever, but that, any bread that was baked there, was forbidden. The reason that he was so strict is because he was afraid that one may come to eat it with Kutach (a milk condiment).
(b)The Beraisa supports Rava bar Ahila'i's initial statement, forbidding smearing an oven with fat, but then adds that once the oven has been re-heated, any bread that is subsequently baked, is permitted. Rava bar Ahila'i opinion is duly refuted, since he has no answer to that.
(a)In spite of the fact that Rava bar Ahila'i is disproved, Rav rules that pots are permanently forbidden, because the Beraisa that permits ovens speaks about metal ovens, whereas his ruling concerns pots that are made of earthenware. Why should their Halachos differ?
(b)Alternatively, the Beraisa might even be speaking about an earthenware oven, and still it will be permitted after heating. Why would that be?
(c)Then why can one not heat the pots too, by heating them from the inside?
(d)What is a Buchya? Is there any way that it can be Kashered?
(a)The reason that even re-heating will not help by earthenware - is because even after they have been heated, they do not exude all their contents, whereas metal vessels do.
(b)Even if the Beraisa is speaking about an earthenware oven, Kashering might still be permitted - because the method of heating an oven is from the inside, in which case, the intense, concentrated heat does succeed in removing everything that is absorbed in its walls (a pot, on the other hand, is generally heated from the outside).
(c)Chazal did not permit heating earthenware pots in this way - because they were afraid that, for fear that the pot (which is not made to withstand so much heat) might crack from the heat, he will not do it properly.
(d)A Buchya is a vessel made of tiles in which one bakes or fries bread. It, unlike earthenware vessels, can be Kashered by heating it from the inside.
(a)Rav Ashi used to buy new knives for Pesach. Does this mean that knives cannot be Kashered for Pesach?
(b)How did Rav Ashi instruct the Kashering to be done (without burning the handle)?
(c)What is the Halachah?
(a)Rav Ashi used to buy new knives for Pesach - because he was a wealthy man. But someone who cannot afford to do so, is permitted to Kasher his knives.
(b)According to Rav Ashi, a knife is Kashered by heating the blade in fire, protecting the handle by cementing it. Afterwards, the handle has to be Kashered in boiling water (known as Hag'alah).
(c)l'Halachah, knives only require Hag'alah in boiling water in a Kli Rishon.
(a)How did Rav Huna Brei d'Rav Yehoshua instruct them to Kasher a wooden ladle?
(b)What major principle do we learn from his ruling?
(c)How would one therefore Kasher a spoon that was used exclusively in a Kli Sheni?
(a)Rav Huna Brei d'Rav Yehoshua instructed them to Kasher a wooden ladle in the same way as one Kashers a knife: by means of Hag'alah.
(b)We learn from him that 'ke'Bol'o Kach Polto'.
(c)One would Kasher a spoon that was used exclusively in a Kli Sheni - in boiling water in a Kli Sheni.
(a)Why can green-clay, lead-plated vessels not be Kashered?
(b)How about black-clay or white-clay ones?
(c)At first, the Gemara was not sure about the latter. In what circumstances was the initial She'eilah not applicable?
(d)By which kinds of vessels then, does the Torah prescribe Kashering in fire or water?
(a)Green-clay, lead-plated vessels cannot be Kashered - because they constantly exude what they have absorbed even through the plating.
(b)The Gemara concludes that the same applies to black-clay and white-clay ones.
(c)If the vessels had cracks in them - the Gemara took for granted that they cannot be Kashered in any case.
(d)The Torah prescribes Kashering in fire or water - by wooden or by metal vessels.
(a)Mereimar permitted all kinds of clay vessels which were used for Yayin Nesech (i.e. Stam Yeinam) to be Kashered? Is this because Yayin Nesech is only mid'Rabanan?
(b)If not, then why did he permit them to be Kashered?
(a)The reason that Mereimar permitted all kinds of clay vessels which were used for Yayin Nesech (i.e. Stam Yeinam) to be Kashered - is not because Yayin Nesech is only mid'Rabanan (because in most cases, the Rabanan instituted their decrees similar to the Isurim d'Oraisa).
(b)The real reason is because they are only used with cold, and not with hot.
(a)Shmuel permitted (even without Kashering) all Chametz-vessels which were only used for cold, with the exception of a yeast-dish. Why is a yeast-dish more stringent than other vessels?
(b)Which vessel does Rav Ashi compare to a yeast-dish?
(c)Rava also compares a kneading-trough to a yeast-dish. Why might we have thought otherwise?
(a)A yeast-dish is more stringent than other vessels - because the yeast, which due to its sour properties, is exceptionally potent, is sometimes left in the dish overnight.
(b)Rav Ashi compares a dish which is used for vinegar or any other acidic liquids to a yeast-dish.
(c)We might have thought that a kneading-trough does not need to be Kashered - because, due to its spaciousness, it gets a lot of air, for which reason it may well not absorb the Chametz.
(a)If a non-Jew lent a Jew money against a security of Chametz, the Chametz is permitted after Pesach. Under which conditions is this the case?
(b)If a Jew lent a non-Jew against his Chametz, the Chametz is forbidden after Pesach. Under which conditions is this so?
(a)If a non-Jew lent a Jew money against a security of Chametz, the Chametz is permitted after Pesach - provided that 1. the Chametz deposit was in the non-Jew's house throughout the duration of Pesach, 2. the Jew did not repay the loan and 3. it was stipulated that the non-Jew would acquire the Chametz retroactively.
(b)In the Seifa too, when a non-Jew lent a Jew money against a security of Chametz, the Chametz is permitted after Pesach - it speaks when the same three conditions were met (see Tosfos Yom-Tov).
(a)Abaye says that a creditor claims retroactively; What does this mean?
(b)What does Rava say?
(c)Does it mean that if the borrower sells the mortgaged property or is Makdish it, then, according to Rava, the creditor cannot claim it?
(d)If not, then what does it mean?
(a)When Abaye says that a creditor claims retroactively - he means that any property that is Meshubad (mortgaged) against the loan will become the creditor's retroactively, should the debtor fail to pay.
(b)According to Rava - the mortgaged property only becomes the creditor's from the moment that he claims it.
(c)This does not mean that if the borrower sells the mortgaged property or is Makdish it, Rava will hold that the creditor cannot claim it - since, if that were the case, what is the point of mortgaging the property?
(d)What it does mean is that, according to him - if the creditor sells the property or is Makdish it, the transaction is invalid.