FROM WHICH CAMPS IS A BA'AL KERI SENT?
Question (Seifa): A Bo'el Nidah is like a Tamei Mes.
Question: In what way are they the same?
Answer #1: This refers to his Tum'ah.
Rejection: Verses explicitly Metamei both of them for seven days!
Answer #2: It refers to which Machanos he must leave.
Summation of question: Since the Seifa refers to Machanos, also the Reisha!
Answer: No - the Seifa refers to Machanos, but the Reisha refers to Tum'ah.
Question (Beraisa): A Metzora is more stringent than a Zav, and a Zav is more stringent than a Tamei Mes - this excludes a Ba'al Keri, who is more lenient than a Tamei Mes (this will be explained).
Suggestion: This means, we exclude a Ba'al Keri from being [sent out of two camps] like a Zav, and he is like a Tamei Mes, since even a Tamei Mes, who is more stringent, [is sent out of only one, and] is permitted in Machaneh Levi!
Answer: No - he leaves the camp [restrictions] of a Tamei Mes, and enters the camp of a Zav;
Even though a Tamei Mes, who is more stringent, is permitted in Machaneh Levi, a Ba'al Keri is like a Zav (their Tum'ah came from their bodies, therefore they are the same regarding Machanos).
(A recitor of Beraisos): [Regarding a Ba'al Keri it says] "Va'Yatza El mi'Chutz la'Machaneh" - this refers to Machaneh Shechinah; "Lo Yavo El Toch ha'Machaneh" - this refers to Machaneh Levi;
This teaches that a Ba'al Keri is expelled from two camps.
Version #1 Question (R. Yitzchak bar Avodimi): [Your Beraisa expounds that] he may not enter [Machaneh Levi] - he is not yet outside [the verse only expelled him from Machaneh Shechinah so far]!
Version #2 Question (R. Yitzchak bar Avodimi): [It expounds that] he may not enter [Machaneh Levi] before teaching that he must leave! (end of Version #2)
Correction (R. Yitzchak bar Avodimi): Rather, it should say "[V'Yatza El] mi'Chutz la'Machaneh" - this is Machaneh Levi; [when he leaves,] "Lo Yavo El Toch ha'Machaneh" - Machaneh Shechinah.
Question (Ravina): We should say that both of them refer to Machaneh Shechinah - the verse teaches that he transgresses a Lav and an Ase for entering!
Answer: If so, it would have said only "Va'Yatza El mi'Chutz la'Machaneh v'Lo Yavo El Toch"; "ha'Machaneh" is extra, to forbid another Machaneh.
MICHUY OF THE INNARDS
(Mishnah): Michuy of the innards [is not Docheh Shabbos].
Question: What does this mean?
Answer #1 (Rav Huna): It is piercing them with a knife [to allow the excrement to leave].
Answer #2 (Chiya bar Rav): It is foul liquid stuck to them that is scraped off with a knife.
Question: What is Chiya's source?
(R. Elazar): He learns from "V'Charvos Mechim Garim Yochelu."
Question: How do we learn this from the verse?
Answer (Rav Yosef): Tzadikim will inherit the property of Resha'im (this teaches that Mechim refers to something detested).
SOURCES FOR REVIVAL OF THE DEAD
(Menasiya bar Yirmeyah): "V'Ra'u Kevasim k'DaVRaM" - k'MeDuBaR BaM (like was said about them).
Question: What was said about them?
Answer #1 (Abaye): [The end of the verse,] "V'Charvos Mechim Garim Yochelu" (Tzadikim will inherit their property).
Objection (Rava): Had it said 'Charvos', I would agree - but "V'Charvos" discusses a new matter!
Answer #2 (Rava): It teaches like Rav Chananel:
(Rav Chananel): In the future, Tzadikim will revive the dead - it says "V'Ra'u Kevasim k'Davram," and it says "Yir'u Vashan v'Gil'ad ki'Mei Olam" (alluding to people who revived the dead):
"Vashan" refers to Elisha, who was from Bashan - it says "V'Yanai v'Shofot ba'Bashan" and "...Po Elisha ben Shofot";
"V'Gil'ad" refers to Eliyahu - "Eliyahu ha'Tishbi mi'Yoshvei Gil'ad."
(R. Shmuel bar Nachmani): In the future, Tzadikim will revive the dead - it says "...Od Yeshvu Zekenim...v'Ish Mish'anto b'Yado," like it says "V'Somti Mish'anti Al Pnei ha'Na'ar" (to revive him).
Contradiction (Ula): It says "Bila ha'Maves la'Netzach," and it says "Ha'Na'ar Ben Me'ah Shanah Yamus"!
Resolution: Death will cease from Yisrael, Nochrim will live long lives [but not forever].
Question: Will Nochrim be in the world to come?!
Answer: Yes, They will be there to serve us - "V'Omdu Zarim v'Ra'u Tzonchem...."
Contradiction (Rav Chisda): It says "V'Chofrah ha'Levanah u'Voshah ha'Chamah" (they will not illuminate; Rashi in Sanhedrin - they will be dim), and it says "V'Hayah Or ha'Levanah k'Or ha'Chamah...Shiv'asayim k'Or Shiv'as ha'Yomim"!
Resolution #1: In the Messianic period they will be bright, but not in the world to come (the radiance of the Shechinah will illuminate).
Question: According to Shmuel, who says that the only difference between this world and Yemos ha'Moshi'ach is that the kingdoms will cease to rule over Yisrael, how can we answer?
Resolution #2: Both refer to the world to come - in the place of Tzadikim they will be bright, but not in the place of the Shechinah.
Question (Rava): It says "Ani Amis va'Achayeh" and it "says Machatzti va'Ani Erpa" - since Hash-m can revive the dead, it need not say that He can heal!
Answer #1: It teaches that just like the same people who were struck are healed, the same people who died come back to life.
(Beraisa) Suggestion: "Ani Amis va'Achayeh" - perhaps this is as we find in this world, people die and others are sustained!
Rejection "Machatzti va'Ani Erpa" - just as the sick are cured, also the dead will be revived;
This refutes those who say that there is no source in Torah for Techiyas ha'Mesim.
Answer #2: First Hash-m will revive people the way He killed them; then, He will heal what He struck.
NEEDS OF AVODAH THAT OVERRIDE SHABBOS
(Mishnah): Haktaras ha'Chelev [is Docheh].
(Beraisa - R. Shimon): This shows the dearness of a Mitzvah in its time! Chelev and limbs of a Korban [whose blood was thrown during the day] may be offered all night, nevertheless [we offer them on Shabbos,] we do not wait for Motza'ei Shabbos.
(Mishnah): Carrying it and bringing it [...and cutting a wart off it are not Docheh].
Contradiction (Mishnah #2): [On Shabbos] one may cut off a wart [from a Kohen or Korban - it is a Mum until it is removed] in the Mikdash, but not outside the Mikdash.
Resolution #1 (R. Elazar or R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Both Mishnayos discuss cutting it off by hand - one may cut off a dry wart in the Mikdash, a wet one is forbidden. (Cutting by hand is a severe Shevus, it is forbidden even in the Mikdash, since it could have been done before Shabbos.)
Resolution #2 (The other of R. Elazar and R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Both discuss moist warts - one may cut it off by hand (this is only Shevus, for is an unskillful way to cut it), but it is forbidden with a Keli;
Question: Why didn't the second opinion answer like the first?
Answer: He holds that Mishnah #2 cannot discuss a dry wart, for it merely crumbles (Rashi - the Tana would not call it 'cutting'; Tosfos - it does not resemble Melachah, surely it would be permitted even with a Keli).
Question: Why didn't the first opinion answer like the second?
Answer: Mishnah #2 already forbids with a Keli everywhere (it need not be repeated in our Mishnah)!
The first opinion holds that it was repeated here to teach that R. Eliezer permits even with a Keli.
(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): Slaughtering [...all the more so Shevusim are Docheh Shabbos! R. Yehoshua says, Yom Tov disproves this - Melachah is permitted, nevertheless Shevus is forbidden!]
This is as R. Yehoshua holds elsewhere, that Simchah [of eating] on Yom Tov is a Mitzvah [mid'Oraisa]:
(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): On Yom Tov a person must eat and drink, or learn;
R. Yehoshua says, one should divide the day - half to eat and drink, and half to learn.
(R. Yochanan): Both of them learn from the same verses:
Contradiction: It says "Atzeres la'Shem Elokecha," and it says "Atzeres Tihyeh Lachem"! (Maharsha - even though one discusses the last day of Pesach and the other Shemini Atzeres, surely the same law applies to both.)
Resolution #1 (R. Eliezer): It must be all for Hash-m (learning), or all for you (eating and drinking)'
Resolution #2 (R. Yehoshua): One must divide the day - half for Hash-m, and half for you.
DAYS ON WHICH ONE MUST EAT
(R. Elazar): All agree that on Shavu'os [at least] part of the day must be for you.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: This is when the Torah was given (see note 45 in Appendix).
(Rabah): All agree that on Shabbos [at least] part of the day must be for you.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: "V'Korosa la'Shabos Oneg."
(Rav Yosef): All agree that on Purim [at least] part of the day must be for you.
Question: What is the reason?
Answer: It says "Yemei Mishteh v'Simchah."
Mar brei d'Ravina used to fast every day (he would eat at night), except for Shavu'os, Purim and Erev Yom Kipur:
[He ate on] Shavu'os, for this is when Torah was given; regarding Purim it says "Yemei Simchah u'Mishteh;" and it is a Mitzvah to eat on Erev Yom Kipur:
(Chiya bar Rav mi'Difti - Beraisa) Question: "V'Inisem Es Nafshoseichem b'Sish'ah la'Chodesh ba'Erev" - the fast of Yom Kipur is on the 10th, not on the ninth!
Answer: This teaches that anyone who eats on the ninth is considered as if he fasted on the ninth and 10th (Sha'arei Teshuvah 4:8 - he shows joy that the time for atonement is coming, testifying to his anxiety over his sins).
Rav Yosef would ask that a third born [or grown] calf be prepared for him on Shavu'os - 'if not for Matan Torah, I would be like a common person.'
Rav Sheshes would review his learning every 30 days and lean on the door bolt - 'Rejoice my soul - I learned for you!'
Question: But R. Elazar taught that if not for the Torah, Heaven and earth would not endure (learning benefits everyone) - "Im Lo Vrisi Yomam va'Laylah Chukos Shomayim va'Aretz Lo Samti"!
Answer: Indeed, people learn for themselves [and this makes the world endure].