12TH CYCLE DEDICATIONS:
 
PESACHIM 43 (1 Adar) - dedicated in memory of Mordecai (Marcus) ben Elimelech Shmuel Kornfeld, who perished in the Holocaust along with most of his family. His Yahrzeit is observed on 1 Adar. May his death and the deaths of the other Kedoshim of the Holocaust atone for the sins of Klal Yisrael like Korbanos.

1)

WHICH COSMETICS CONTAIN CHAMETZ?

(a)

(Mishnah - R. Eliezer): Also women's cosmetics.

(b)

Objection: This cannot be! (Rashi - mascara, fragrances, etc. are not Chametz at all!)

(c)

Correction: Rather, it is salves [to remove pubic hair - see note 27 in Appendix]:

1.

(Rav Yehudah): Benos Yisrael who bring hairs while they are still minors [and are embarrassed about this]:

2.

Poor girls apply plaster to remove them, rich girls use Soles, princesses use Mor oil - "Shishah Chodoshim b'Shemen ha'Mor."

3.

Question: What is Mor oil?

4.

Answer #1 (Rav Huna bar Yirmeyah): It is scented oil.

5.

Answer #2 (R. Yirmeyah bar Aba): It is oil of olives that did not reach a third of their [normal] growth.

6.

(Beraisa - R. Yehudah): Anfiknin is oil of olives that did not reach a third of their growth; one anoints with it to remove hair and soften skin.

(d)

(Mishnah): The general rule is - one transgresses on Pesach for anything from grain.

(e)

(Beraisa - R. Yehoshua) Question: Since one transgresses for anything from grain, why did Chachamim list these?

(f)

Answer: This is so people will be familiar with them and what they are called;

1.

A resident of Eretz Yisrael went to Bavel with meat; he requested an accompaniment for bread. He heard people saying 'Bring to him Kutach' [and knew from our Mishnah that it was dairy], and knew to refrain from it.

2)

CHAMETZ NUKSHEH AND MIXTURES OF CHAMETZ

(a)

(Mishnah): A Lav forbids [eating them on Pesach].

(b)

Question: Who is our Tana, who holds that both Nuksheh and mixtures of Chametz are forbidden by a Lav? (Nuksheh is grain that started fermenting, but never became proper Chametz that is good to eat. Aruch - it fermented by itself, without Se'or.)

(c)

Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah): It is R. Meir:

1.

(Beraisa): Sei'or (partially fermented dough - this is not Se'or, sourdough) must be burned; one may give it to his dog, and one who eats it receives 40 lashes.

2.

Contradiction: 'It must be burned' forbids benefit from it - 'one may give it to his dog' permits benefit from it!

3.

Resolution: (Sei'or is a dough that started whitening/has few cracks, according to R. Meir/R. Yehudah.) The Beraisa means, each Tana says that 'his' Sei'or must be burned;

i.

R. Yehudah says that R. Meir's Sei'or may be given to one's dog (mid'Oraisa, one may even eat it - it is proper Matzah);

ii.

The Seifa, 'One who eats it receives 40 lashes' is according to R. Meir [regarding his Sei'or].

4.

This shows that R. Meir forbids Nuksheh with a Lav - all the more so a Lav forbids a mixture of [proper] Chametz of grain!

(d)

Answer #2 (Rav Nachman): It is like R. Eliezer:

1.

(Beraisa - R. Eliezer): One who eats proper Chametz of grain is Chayav Kares; one who eats a mixture of it transgresses a Lav;

2.

Chachamim agree about Chametz itself, but they say that one who eats a mixture does not transgress anything.

i.

R. Eliezer forbids a mixture with a Lav - all the more he forbids pure Nuksheh with a Lav!

(e)

Question: Why didn't Rav Nachman answer like Rav Yehudah?

(f)

Answer: [Rav Nachman holds that we are more stringent about Nuksheh than a mixture of Chametz] - R. Meir forbids Nuksheh with a Lav, but perhaps he does not forbid a mixture with a Lav.

(g)

Question: Why didn't Rav Yehudah answer like Rav Nachman?

(h)

Answer: [Rav Yehudah holds that we are more stringent about a mixture of Chametz than about Nuksheh] - R. Eliezer forbids a mixture with a Lav, but perhaps he does not forbid Nuksheh with a Lav.

(i)

Support (for Rav Yehudah - Beraisa): "Kol Machmetzes Lo Sochelu" - this includes Kutach of Bavel, beer of Madai, vinegar of Edom, and Zeisum ha'Mitzri;

1.

Suggestion: Perhaps one is Chayav Kares for these!

2.

Rejection: "Ki Kol Ochel Chametz v'Nichresah" - one is Chayav Kares for pure Chametz, but one [only] transgresses a Lav for mixtures.

3.

We know that R. Eliezer forbids mixtures with a Lav - [surely, the Beraisa is like him, and] he does not forbid Nuksheh with a Lav!

3)

THE SOURCE TO FORBID MIXTURES

(a)

Question: What is R. Eliezer's source to forbid mixtures?

(b)

Answer #1: "Kol Machmetzes Lo Sochelu" forbids them.

1.

Question: If so, he should Mechayev Kares on account of Ki Kol Ochel Machmetzes v'Nichresah!

2.

Answer: That verse teaches about something else:

i.

(Beraisa) Question: "Chametz" forbids something that became Chametz by itself (R. Chananel learns simply; Tosfos (28B) - 'by itself' means, through Se'or) - what is the source to forbid Chametz leavened through other things?

ii.

Answer: "Kol Ochel Machmetzes v'Nichresah."

(c)

Objection: If so, we should say that also "Kol Machmetzes Lo Sochelu" refers to something that fermented by itself, not to Nuksheh!

(d)

Answer #2: "Kol Machmetzes Lo Sochelu" includes mixtures.

(e)

Question: If so, he should also Mechayev Kares, on account of "Ki Kol Ochel Machmetzes v'Nichresah"!

(f)

Answer: That "Kol" is used to include women.

(g)

Question: There is a different source to include women!

1.

(Rav Yehudah (and Tana d'vei R. Yishmael)): "Ish O Ishah Asher Ya'asu mi'Kol Chatos ha'Adam" - the Torah equates men and women regarding all punishments.

43b----------------------------------------43b

(h)

Answer: Nevertheless, "Kol" is needed to include women;

1.

It says "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz Shiv'as Yomim Tochal Alav Matzos" - whoever is commanded to eat Matzah is forbidden to eat Chametz;

2.

One might have thought that women are exempt from eating Matzah, since it is a Mitzvas Ase sheha'Zeman Gerama (a positive Mitzvah that applies only at certain times), therefore they are also exempt from "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz" [even though they are normally commanded about all Lavin] - the verse teaches that this is not so;

3.

The verse forbids them to eat Chametz - therefore, they are commanded to eat Matzah, like R. Elazar taught:

4.

(R. Elazar): Mid'Oraisa, women are commanded to eat Matzah;

i.

It says "Lo Sochal Alav Chametz Shiv'as Yomim Tochal Alav Matzos" - whoever is forbidden to eat Chametz is commanded to eat Matzah - since Chametz is forbidden to women, they are commanded to eat Matzah.

(i)

Question: Why do you say that "Kol" includes women, not a mixture - perhaps it is just the contrary!

(j)

Answer: The verse ("Kol Ochel") refers to who eats - presumably, it includes eaters, not foods.

(k)

Question (R. Noson, the father of Rav Huna): Sometimes a verse discusses who eats and includes foods!

1.

(Beraisa) Question: "Ki Kol Ochel Chelev Min ha'Behemah Asher Yakriv Mimenah Korban la'Shem" forbids Chelev of unblemished animals, which could be offered - what is the source to forbid Chelev of a Ba'al Mum?

2.

Answer: "Min ha'Behemah" forbids this.

3.

Question: What is the source to forbid Chelev of Chulin animals?

4.

Answer: "Ki Kol" forbids this.

5.

Summation of question: "Ki Kol" discusses who eats, yet it includes foods!

(l)

Answer: There, there are no other eaters that need to be included (there is no source to exclude women) - here, since we can use the verse to include eaters, this is preferable.

(m)

Question: Chachamim exempt for mixtures of Chametz, for they do not expound "Kol" [to include something if there is reason to exclude it] - what is their source to include women?

(n)

Answer: They do not expound "Kol," but they expound "Ki Kol."

(o)

Question: R. Eliezer should expound "Kol" to include women, and "Ki Kol" to include [Kares for] mixtures!

1.

Suggestion: Perhaps he does not expound "Ki Kol."

2.

Rejection (Beraisa) Question: "Se'or...Lo Saktiru" forbids Haktarah (burning Se'or or Chametz on the Mizbe'ach) of a whole k'Zayis - what is the source for half [a k'Zayis]?

3.

Answer: "Chol" forbids this.

4.

Question: What is the source for [Haktarah of] a mixture?

5.

Answer: "Ki Chol" forbids this.

6.

Summation of question: We know that R. Eliezer expounds "Kol" - surely, the Beraisa is like him, and it also expounds "Ki Kol"!

(p)

This is left difficult.

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