ARE LIQUIDS ALWAYS TEHORIM?
(Beraisa - R. Meir and R. Elazar): If there is a Safek whether or not a liquid became Tamei, it is Tamei; if there is a Safek whether or not a liquid was Metamei something, it is Tahor [because this is a Safek mid'Rabanan];
R. Yehudah is Metamei in both cases;
R. Yosi and R. Shimon Metamei regarding food and Metaher regarding Kelim.
Question: R. Elazar holds that liquids are not Tamei at all [mid'Oraisa]!
(Beraisa - R. Elazar): [Mid'Oraisa,] liquids are not Tamei at all - Yosi ben R. Yo'ezer testified that Ayil Kamtza (a species of grasshopper) is Tahor (permitted to eat) and that liquids (blood and water) of Beis Mitbechai (the place where Korbanos are rinsed) are Tahor!
This is not difficult for Shmuel, who says that they do not Metamei other things, but they themselves can become Tamei;
But Rav says that even they themselves are Tehorim - how can he answer?
Answer (Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak): R. Elazar only holds like one of the things that R. Meir said [regarding to Metamei other things].
Question: But it says 'like his words', i.e. his many words; also, it says 'and similarly'!
This is left difficult.
(Rav): The liquids [in Beis Mitbechai] themselves are Tehorim;
He holds that liquids cannot become Tamei mid'Oraisa, only mid'Rabanan - Chachamim decreed this elsewhere, but not in Beis Mitbechai.
(Shmuel): They do not Metamei other things, but they themselves can become Tamei.
He holds that mid'Oraisa, liquids can become Tamei, therefore, this applies everywhere; mid'Rabanan, they can Metamei other things - Chachamim decreed elsewhere, but not in Beis Mitbechai.
Question (Rav Huna bar Chinena): If they are Temei'im, they must Metamei - "Veha'Basar Asher Yiga b'Chol Tamei Lo Ye'achel!"
Answer (Rav Shisha brei d'Rav Idi): They are like a Revi'i of Kodesh - it is Pasul, but it is not Metamei.
Question (Rav Ashi): A Revi'i of Kodesh is not called Tamei - liquids are called Tamei! (Presumably, Shmuel learns from the next verse cited, which calls them Tamei.)
This is left difficult.
Question: "V'Chol Mashkeh Asher Yishaseh b'Chol Keli Yitma" (any drink can become Tamei)!
Answer: No - "Yitma" means, it is Machshir (food cannot become Tamei until it is wet by one of seven special liquids; this is called Hechsher).
Question: The beginning of the verse teaches about Hechsher - "Mi'Kol ha'Ochel Asher Ye'achel!"
Answer: These teach about Hechsher through liquids connected to the ground and liquids that are not connected - we could not learn one from the other:
Had it taught about uprooted liquids, one might have thought that uprooting shows that he considers them important - but connected liquids are not important [and are not Machshir];
Had it taught about connected liquids, one might have thought that they are important because they are in their place - but uprooted liquids are not important.
Question (against Rav): "Ach Mayan u'Vor Mikve Mayim Yihyeh Tahor" (connected water is Tahor - we infer that uprooted water is not)!
Answer: It means that if a Tamei immerses in it, he will be Tahor [but not if he immerses in drawn water].
IS DAM KODSHIM MEKABEL TUM'AH?
Question: Uprooted water is not Machshir!
(R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina): Liquids in Beis Mitbechai are Tehorim; further, they are not even Machshir!
Answer: He refers only to blood.
(R. Chiya bar Aba) Question: What is the source that blood of Kodshim is not Machshir [even though Dam Chulin is Machshir]?
Answer: "Al ha'Aretz Tishpechenu ka'Mayim" - only blood which is spilled like water is Machshir [but not blood of Kodshim, which is caught in a Keli for Zerikah].
Question (Rav Shmuel bar Ami): Dam Tamtzis (blood that drips out, it is Pasul for Zerikah) is spilled like water, yet it is not Machshir!
Answer (R. Zeira): Even Dam Tamtzis of Chulin is not Machshir (this will be explained).
Rav Shmuel bar Ami accepted this answer, for it says "Ki ha'Dam Hu ha'Nafesh" - only Dam [ha'Nefesh, that flows out] at the time of death is considered blood.
Question (Beraisa): If blood became Tamei and Zerikah was done:
If it was b'Shogeg, it is Meratzeh (one fulfilled his obligation to bring the Korban); if b'Mezid, Lo Hurtzeh. (Blood is Mekabel Tum'ah mid'Oraisa!)
Answer: This refers to Tum'ah mid'Rabanan - it is unlike Yosi ben Yo'ezer [who says that even mid'Rabanan it is not Mekabel Tum'ah].
Question (Beraisa): The Tzitz is Meratzeh for blood, meat and Chelev that became Tamei, whether b'Shogeg or b'Mezid or b'Ones, for a Korban Yachid or a Korban Tzibur.
Answer: This refers to Tum'ah mid'Rabanan - it is unlike Yosi ben Yo'ezer.
(Beraisa) Question: "V'Nosa Aharon Es Avon ha'Kodoshim" - what sin does the Tzitz bear?
It cannot be Pigul, for it says "Lo Yechashev" (it is Pasul - even the Tzitz will not help! Here, Pigul refers to Kodshim Nifsal through intent to eat outside the permitted place.)
It cannot be Nosar, for it says "Lo Yeratzeh" (in any case it is Pasul. Here, Nosar refers to what the Torah calls Pigul, i.e. a Korban offered with intent to eat it when it is Nosar, i.e. Chutz li'Zmano.)
Answer: It bears the sin of Tum'ah, for Tum'ah is wholly permitted to the Tzibur (if a Korban Tzibur with a fixed time cannot be brought in Taharah, we bring it b'Tum'ah).
Suggestion: This refers to [mid'Oraisa] Tum'ah of blood!
Answer (Rav Papa): No, it refers to Tum'ah of a Kometz.