PESACHIM 51 (4 Elul) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Chaim Yisachar (ben Yaakov) Smulewitz of Cleveland on his Yahrzeit, by his daughter and son in law, Jeri & Eli Turkel of Raanana, Israel.
PESACHIM 51 - Dedicated by Dr. Alain Bitton of Geneva, Switzerland, towards a Refu'ah Sheleimah for his mother, Rina bat Fibi, and in memory of his aunt, Mazal bat Freha, who passed away on 7 Adar.

[51a - 52 lines; 51b - 26 lines]

1)[line 2]בכותאיKUTA'EI- Kusim (a nation whose mass conversion to Judaism may or may not have been authentic; see Background to Eruvin 36:12)

2)[line 3]דמסרכי מילתאMESARCHEI MILSA- confuse one thing with another (if one thing thought to be forbidden is permitted, they will come to allow another)

3)[line 12]רוחצין שני אחין כאחדROCHATZIN SHNEI ACHIM K'ECHAD- two brothers may wash together (i.e. it is not considered a breach of modesty)

4)[line 13]בכבולKEVUL- Cabul, a place southeast of Akko

5)[line 15]ולעזה עליהןLA'AZAH ALEIHEN- they (the people of Kevul) derided them

6)[line 16]ונשמטNISHMAT- removed himself (left)

7)[line 17]לבית החיצוןBAYIS HA'CHITZON- the outer room [of the bathhouse]

8)[line 18]יוצאים בקורדקיסון בשבתYOTZ'IM B'KORDEKISON B'SHABBOS- one may leave [a Reshus ha'Yachid and walk in a Reshus ha'Rabim] in low and loose-fitting shoes unfastened by ties (slippers) on Shabbos

9)[line 19]בביריB'VEIRI- in Beiri (a town in the Galilee)

10)[line 22]ושמטוםV'SHMATUM- and they removed them

11)[line 24]ספסלי נכריםSAFSALEI NOCHRIM- benches of Nochrim [upon which wares are being sold]

12)[line 33]משתלפיןMISHTALFIN- they are taken off

13)[line 33]ואתי לאיתויינהוV'ASI L'AISUYINHU- and [their owners] may come to carry them a [distance of four Amos in Reshus ha'Rabim, thus violating the Melachah of Hotza'ah]

14)[line 37]מפני כבוד אביוMIPNEI KEVOD AVIV- for the honor of his father (that is, so that he can help him in the bathhouse)

15)[line 41]דאייתראD'A'YATRA- that [fat] on the Yeser. The Yeser is the outer part of the bow-shaped stomach of an animal. This Chelev was eaten in Eretz Yisrael, but not in Bavel.

16)[line 42]כסייה מינייהוKASYEI MINAIHU- he hid it from them

17)[line 44]שווינכו ככותאיSHAVINCHU K'KUTA'EI- he is treating you like Kusim (about whom Rav Chisda ruled that one may not do that which they view to be forbidden in their view, lest they jump to the incorrect conclusion)

18)[line 46]כייפינן להוKAIFINAN LEHU- we (the scholars of Bavel) are subordinate to them (the scholars of Eretz Yisrael) [since they have Semichah and we do not]

19)[line 47]עבדינן כוותייהוAVDINAN KAVASAIHU- we must act according to their ruling; i.e. they need not change their custom when it differs from ours while they are visiting Bavel

20)[line 49]לא תאכלLO TOCHAL- do not eat [the Chelev upon the Yeser]


21)[line 1]ספיחי כרובSEFICHEI KRUV (SHEVI'IS: SEFICHIM)

(a)The Torah requires farmers to desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. Produce which grows during the seventh (Shevi'is) year is holy, which in this context means that: 1. It is considered ownerless; anyone may enter any field and pick that which he wishes to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2). 3. Shevi'is produce may be consumed only in the manner considered normal for that type of food, or burned to provide light in the case of oil. It may not be wasted, used for medicinal purposes, fed to animals, etc.

(b)Sefichim refers to that which grows of its own accord during the Shemitah year. There is difference of opinion among the Rishonim as to why Sefichim may not be eaten during Shemitah. According to RASHI, the Torah forbids the consumption of Sefichim after the Zman ha'Bi'ur (see Background to Pesachim 50:11). TOSFOS contends that this is only according to the opinion of Rebbi Akiva. The Chachamim maintain that according to Torah law, the eating of Sefichim is permitted. The Rabanan, however, decreed that it is forbidden to eat Sefichim of vegetables and grains (even before Zman ha'Bi'ur), for fear that people may sow such crops and then claim that the produce grew by itself (Pesachim 51b).

(c)According to Rashi, Rebbi Shimon and the Chachamim in our Gemara argue about Sefichei Kruv after Zman ha'Bi'ur. Rebbi Shimon maintains that since cabbage is found in the fields all year long, it never becomes prohibited. Tosfos says that their argument applies even beforehand, and is only in the opinion of Rebbi Akiva. Rebbi Shimon maintains that since cabbage leaves grow from preexisting heads as opposed to seeds, they are not included in the Derashah of Rebbi Akiva from the verse which specifically mentions the planting of seeds.

22)[line 22]ארישאA'REISHA- [that which the Mishnah says that one should not act differently from the custom prevalent where he is on Erev Pesach refers only to] the Reisha (i.e. the case in which one went from a place where Melachah is performed to one where it is not)

23)[line 24]אומר מלאכה אסורה?OMER MELACHAH ASURAH?- will he say, "[This person is acting against the custom, as if] Melachah is forbidden?" [Certainly not!]

24)[last line]דידעינן בקביעא דירחאD'YAD'INAN B'KEVI'A D'YARCHA- that we are experts in the fixed lunar calendar (see Insights)