ANNULMENT BEFORE THE VOW TAKES EFFECT
Contradiction (Seifa - Chachamim): We can immerse a Tamei Kli to make it Tahor. Will you say that we can immerse a Tahor Kli, that it should become Tahor after it becomes Tamei?
Resolution: Chachamim were unsure about R. Eliezer's opinion.
They asked 'if you hold that it takes effect and it is annulled, the comparison to a Kli disproves you. If you hold that it does not take effect at all, the comparison to a Mikvah disproves you!'
Answer #4 (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): If Tamei plants were planted in the ground, they become Tahor. All the more so, plants that are already growing are Tehorim (even if Tum'ah touched them)!
This shows that he holds that the vow does not take effect at all.
Question: Surely, also Chachamim make such a Kal v'Chomer!
(Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps a man can sell his daughter to be a slave when she is a Na'arah!
Rejection: A Kal v'Chomer disproves this.
A girl who was already sold goes free (when she becomes a Na'arah). All the more so, a girl who was not yet sold cannot be sold!
Answer: In general, Chachamim learn from such a Kal v'Chomer. Here they do not, because they expound "her husband will affirm it, her husband will annul it";
Only a vow which could be affirmed (has taken effect) can be annulled.
ANNULMENT IS ON THE DAY THE VOW IS HEARD
(Mishnah): A vow may be annulled on the day it is heard (by the father or husband). This can be a leniency or a stringency:
If she vowed on Shabbos night, he can annul on Shabbos night, and Shabbos day until dark. If she vowed shortly before nightfall, he can only annul until nightfall.
(Gemara - Beraisa): Vows can be annulled the entire day;
R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah and R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Shimon give 24 hours.
Question: What is the first Tana's source?
Answer: He learns from "on the day he hears."
Question: What is the source of R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah and R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Shimon?
Answer: They learn from "from day to day."
Question: How does the first Tana expound "from day to day"?
Answer: Had it said only "on the day he hears", one might have thought that he can annul only by day, but not at night. "From day to day" includes the night.
Question: How do R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah and R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Shimon expound "on the day he hears"?
Answer: Had it said only "from day to day", one might have thought that if she vowed on Sunday, he can annul until the next Sunday. "On the day he hears" teaches that this is not so.
(R. Shimon ben Pazi): The Halachah does not follow R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah and R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Shimon.
Levi was about to rule like R. Yosi b'Rebbi Yehudah and R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Shimon.
Rav: R. Chiya said that the Halachah does not follow them.
Chiya bar Rav would throw arrows (while checking a man who wanted to permit his vow). Rabah bar Rav Huna would sit and stand. (They hold that regret is sufficient, therefore they saw no need for great concentration - Ran. Rosh - when their wives vowed and they wanted to vex them, they would delay almost 24 hours before annulling it. They shot an arrow into the wall or stood, and permitted it the next day just before the (arrow's or his) shadow reached almost the same place as at the time of the vow.)