WAYS TO BE POSE'ACH
(Mishnah): We may be Pose'ach by pointing out that a vow includes Shabbos and Yom Tov.
At first, [Chachamim] thought that only Shabbos and Yom Tov are permitted (after regret). R. Akiva taught that a vow that was partially permitted is totally permitted.
If Levi said 'Konam, none of you may benefit from me' and one of the people became permitted (to benefit from Levi), all of them are permitted;
If he said 'may not benefit from me - not this one, nor this...', and the first person named becomes permitted, all are permitted. If the last one becomes permitted, the others remain forbidden.
If one said 'benefit that I give to this person should be like a Korban, (benefit) to this one, like a Korban...', to annul them, a separate Pesach (reason to consider the vow a mistake) is needed for each one.
If one said 'wine is forbidden to me, for it harms the intestines', and then he heard that old wine is good for the intestines, all wine is permitted;
If he said 'onions are forbidden to me, for they harm the heart', and then he heard that onions of Kufri are good for the heart, all onions are permitted;
Such a case occurred, and R. Meir permitted all onions to him.
(Gemara) Question: The Mishnah says 'if the first becomes permitted, all are permitted. If the last becomes permitted, the others remain forbidden... [benefit that I give to this person should be like a Korban, to this one, like a Korban...]' Whom is the Tana?
Answer (Rava): It is R. Shimon, who says that if one forbade several people through an oath, it is considered one oath unless he mentions the word 'oath' for each one.
(Mishnah): 'Wine is forbidden to me...'
Question: (Why must we say that old wine is good for the intestines?) Even if it was neither good nor bad, the vow is permitted! (He said that he forbids wine because it is harmful!)
Answer (R. Aba): This is true. The Mishnah teaches more than necessary. He is permitted because old wine is not bad for the intestines. In fact, it is good for them!
(Mishnah): 'Onions are forbidden to me, for they harm...'
Question: (Why must we say that onions of Kufri are good for the heart?) It suffices that they are not bad!
Answer (R. Aba): The Mishnah teaches that not only they are not bad. In fact, they are good!
(Mishnah): We may be Pose'ach by suggesting that a person should be concerned for his own honor and that of his children.
We say 'had you known that people will say that it is your way is to divorce women, that your daughters were born (out of wedlock) after the divorce of their mother, that you must have seen reason to divorce her (infidelity)', would you have vowed?
If he says 'had I thought of this, I would not have vowed', it is permitted.
If one said 'I will not marry Plonis, because she is ugly', and she is actually pretty, or 'because she is black (or short)', and she is really white (or tall); he is permitted;
This is not because she was ugly or black or short, and she became pretty or white or tall. Rather, the vow was a mistake from the beginning.
A case occurred in which Reuven vowed not to marry his sister's daughter. They took her to R. Yishmael's house and prettied her up.
R. Yishmael: Did you vow from this girl?
R. Yishmael permitted the vow. He cried 'Benos Yisrael are pretty. Poverty dampers their looks!'
When R. Yishmael died, Benos Yisrael lamented. They lamented similarly when Sha'ul died.
(Gemara) Question: The case brought contradicts the law of the Mishnah (that if she was ugly and became pretty, the vow is not permitted)!
Answer: The Mishnah is abbreviated. It means as follows:
R. Yishmael says, even if an ugly girl became pretty, or a black or short girl became white o r tall, the vow is permitted;
A case occurred in which Reuven vowed not to marry his sister's daughter. They took her to R. Yishmael's house and prettied her up...
(Beraisa): The girl had lost a tooth, and had inserted a tooth in its place. R. Yishmael made for her a gold tooth from his own money.
When R. Yishmael died, he was eulogized as follows, "Benos Yisrael, lament R. Yishmael, who clothes you..."
Reuven vowed that his wife may not benefit from him until she gets R. Yehudah and R. Shimon to taste her cooking.
R. Yehudah tasted it. He reasoned 'to make Shalom between a man and his wife (a Sotah), the Torah commands that Hash-m's name, written in Kedushah, be erased into water. All the more so, I will help to make Shalom!'
R. Shimon did not taste it. He said '(the man, and) all the children of the widow should die, and I will not budge. (Rosh - Bnei Almanah refers to people who were not trained to act properly, like this man.)
Reuven vowed that his wife may not benefit from him until she spits on R. Shimon ben Gamliel. She spat on his garments (and the vow was permitted).
Objection (Rav Acha from Difti): Her husband intended for a disgrace!
Answer (Ravina): Spitting on R. Shimon ben Gamliel's garments is a great disgrace.
Reuven vowed that his wife may not benefit from him until she shows something nice about her to R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi.
R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi: Perhaps her head is nice?
People (who recognized her): No, it is round.
In searching for something nice about her, he learned that her hair is like flax, her eyes are round, her ears are big, her nose is (shriveled and appears) closed, her lips are thick, her neck is thin, her stomach is inflated, her feet are wide like a goose's, and her name is Lichluchis (filthy).
R. Yishmael: Her name is nice (appropriate), for she is filthy with Mumim!
A man from Bavel came to Eretz Yisrael and married. His wife did not understand his language. Three times she did contrary to his request. This angered him.
Her husband: Break these lamps on the head of Bava (the porch, in Aramaic).
She did not know that Bava means porch. She broke them on the head of Bava ben Buta, who was judging a case.
Bava ben Buta: Why did you do this?
The wife: My husband told me to.
Bava ben Buta: You did your husband's request. May Hash-m give to you two sons like myself!