NEDARIM 56 (3 Av) - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Reb Aharon Dovid ben Elimelech Shmuel Kornfeld (Muncasz/Israel/New York), who passed away on 3 Av 5761, by his daughter Diane Koenigsberg and her husband Dr. Andy Koenigsberg. May his love for Torah and for Eretz Yisrael continue in all of his descendants.


(a)(Mishnah - R. Meir): If one vowed from a house, the Aliyah (second story) is permitted;

(b)Chachamim say, the Aliyah is part of the house;

(c)If one vowed from the Aliyah, the house is permitted.

(d)(Gemara) Question: Who is the Tana of the following?

1.(Beraisa): (Regarding Tzara'as it says) "in the house." This includes a shed (our text, Rosh. Tosfos, Ran - a colored house), and the Aliyah.

(e)Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): It is R. Meir. Chachamim say that the Aliyah is considered part of the house, so they would not need a verse to include it!

(f)Answer #2 (Abaye): It can even be like Chachamim.

1.One might have thought that "A house of the land of your inheritance" requires that it is connected to the ground, to exclude the Aliyah. "In a house" teaches that this is not so.

(g)Question: Like whom is the following teaching?

1.(Rav Huna bar Chiya): If one said 'I sell to you a house among my houses', he may give to him an Aliyah.

2.Inference: This is only because he said 'a house among my houses.' Had he said only 'a house', he could not give him an Aliyah!

3.Suggestion: This is like R. Meir.

(h)Answer: It can even be like Chachamim. Aliyah does not mean a second story, rather, Me'ulah (the best) of houses.


(a)(Mishnah - R. Meir): If one vowed from a bed, a Dargash is permitted;

(b)Chachamim say, Dargash is included in 'bed'.

(c)If one vowed from a Dargash, a bed is permitted.

(d)(Gemara) Question: What is a Dargash?

(e)Answer #1 (Ula): It is a bed spread only for good fortune, not for use.

(f)Question #1 (Mishnah): When giving the first consolation meal to a king (after he lost a relative), all sit on the ground, and the king sits on a Dargash.

1.You cannot say that the only time he uses the bed is when he starts Aveilus!

(g)Answer (Ravina): We can say this! Normally, he has meat and wine only if he wants. Now, we give him!

(h)Question #2 (Beraisa): They would not turn over the Dargash. They would leave it upright (Rosh; Rashi - they would turn it on its side).

1.This cannot refer to a bed for good fortune!

2.(Beraisa): Not only the mourner's bed is turned. Rather, all his beds (i.e. that he owns, even if he does not sleep on them) in the house are turned!


(i)Answer: Perhaps the law of a Dargash is like the law of a bed designated for Kelim.

1.(Beraisa): One need not invert a bed designated for Kelim.

(j)Question #3 (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Gamliel): It suffices (for a mourner) to untie the loops of a Dargash, for then it falls. (The loops held the leather mat in place, suspended by the frame.)

1.A bed for good fortune does not have loops! (It is like a regular bed, in which the mat is permanently attached.)

(k)Answer #2 (Ravin): It is a bed consisting of a hide that is tied to the frame.

(l)Question: What is the difference between a bed and a Dargash?

(m)Answer #1 (R. Yirmiyah): The ropes of a bed are fastened on top of the frame. The ropes of a Dargash are fastened in the frame.

1.Question (Mishnah): A wooden bed or crib is susceptible to Tum'ah from the time it is rubbed with skin of a fish (to smooth it).

2.If the ropes are fastened on top of the frame, there is no reason to smooth it (it is always covered)!

(n)Answer #2: Rather, in both, the ropes are fastened in the frame.

1.In a bed, the ropes pass through holes in the frame. In a Dargash, they pass through loops attached to the frame.

(o)(Rav Yakov bar Acha): If a bed has poles jutting out at the head and foot, it suffices to stand it upright.

(p)(R. Yakov bar Idi): The Halachah follows R. Shimon ben Gamliel.


(a)(Mishnah): If one vowed from a city, he may enter its Techum (the surrounding Mil (about a kilometer) in which one may walk on Shabbos). He may not enter its Ibur (the surrounding 71 Amos);

(b)If one vowed from a house, he is forbidden only from the Agaf (threshold) or further in.

(c)(Gemara): How do we know that the Ibur of a city is like the city?

(d)Answer (R. Yochanan): "When Yehoshua was in Yericho..."

1.Question: What does this mean?

i.It cannot mean that he was in the city itself. The city was closed off!

2.Answer: Rather, he was in its Ibur.

3.Suggestion: Perhaps he was in the Techum, and even this is considered being in the city!

4.Rejection: About the Techum it says "You will measure from outside the city."

(e)(Mishnah): If one vowed from a house, he is forbidden only from the Agaf and further in.

(f)Inference: Everything outside is permitted.

(g)Question (Rav Mari - Beraisa) Suggestion: Perhaps "The Kohen will leave the house (that has Tzara'as)" teaches that he goes home and closes the house (through a rope or Shali'ach)!

1.Rejection: (He goes only) "to the doorway."

2.Suggestion: Perhaps he stands under the lintel and closes it!

3.Rejection: "From the house" - he must entirely leave the house.

4.Resolution: He stands next to the lintel and closes it.

5.Question: If he went home and closed it, or closed it while under the lintel, what is the source that it is considered Musgar (quarantined)?

6.Answer: "He will close the house" - in any case. (Under the lintel is considered like in the house, even if it is outside the Agaf!)

(h)Answer: Normally, under the lintel is considered outside. Here, "From the house" requires the Kohen to leave it entirely.