1)

WHEN ARE WE CONCERNED FOR A BURIAL SITE?

(a)

(Mishnah): If one finds a Mes lying down, like normal, he may relocate it, taking its Tefusah (underlying soil) with it. The same applies if he finds two Mesim.

(b)

If he finds three Mesim between four and eight Amos apart, the area is assumed to be a burial site. He must check 20 Amos for more Mesim.

(c)

If another Mes is found within 20 Amos, he must check another 20 Amos from there, for there is supporting evidence (that there are more).

1.

Had he only found the one Mes, he would be allowed to move it with its dirt.

(d)

(Gemara - Rav Yehudah): The Mishnah says 'if he found' to exclude a known Mes. 'Dead' excludes someone murdered. 'Lying' excludes sitting. 'Normally' excludes when the head rests between the thighs.

(e)

(Ula bar Chanina): An incomplete Mes does not have the law of Tefusah, and it does not count towards establishing a burial site.

(f)

Question: Why are all these cases excluded?

(g)

Answer: Perhaps the Mes is a Nochri.

(h)

If two Mesim are found, the head of each is by the feet of the other, they do not have the law of Tefusah, and do not join to establish a burial site.

(i)

If three Mesim are found, and one or two of them were known to have been buried there, they do not have the laws of Tefusah or a burial site.

1.

R. Yesheivav once found two known Mesim and one unknown Mes. He wanted to declare the area to be a burial site.

2.

R. Akiva ruled like above. It is a burial site only if all three were known or all unknown.

2)

TEFUSAH

(a)

(Mishnah): He takes them and their Tefusos.

(b)

Question: What is the source for Tefusah?

(c)

Answer (Rav Yehudah): "You will take me from Mitzrayim" (this is extra) - take (soil) from Mitzrayim with me.

(d)

Question: How much soil must be taken?

(e)

Answer (R. Elazar): All the ground-up soil underneath, and the depth of three fingers of virgin soil.

(f)

Question (Beraisa - R. Eliezer b'Rebbi Tzadok): He takes the chips from the coffin and the clumps of dirt. He may discard what is certainly not from the deceased, but hides away what is doubtfully from the Mes;

1.

What is definitely from the Mes joins to the quantity to be Metamei, i.e. the majority of bones of the body, or bones comprising most of the stature, or a spoonful of Rekev.

(g)

Answer: R. Elazar holds like the following Tana.

1.

(Beraisa - R. Yochanan): He takes the ground-up soil underneath, and three fingers' depth of virgin soil.

3)

CHECKING THE AREA

(a)

(Mishnah): He checks from there...

65b----------------------------------------65b

(b)

Version #1 (Rava): If a man found a Mes and buried it elsewhere, he found another Mes and did the same, and he found a third Mes, he may not move it, and he need not return the first two.

(c)

Version #2 (Rava): Since he was permitted to move the first two, he is permitted to move this one also.

(d)

Objection: This area should be established to be a burial site!

(e)

Answer (Reish Lakish): They found an excuse to be Metaher Eretz Yisrael.

(f)

Question: If he checked 20 Amos and did not find another Mes, what is the law? (Tosfos - must he check in other directions also, or until finding virgin soil? Rosh - does this prove that this area was not a burial site?)

(g)

Answer (Rav Menasya bar Yirmiyah): It is a burial site. (Tosfos - one need not check more. The Rosh deletes the following question and answer from the text.)

(h)

Question: What is the reason?

(i)

Answer (Reish Lakish): They found an excuse to be Metaher Eretz Yisrael.

4)

SAFEK TZARA'AS

(a)

(Mishnah): As long as a Nega (an appearance of Tzara'as) was not declared Muchlat, any Safek is Tahor;

1.

Once a Nega was Muchlat, any Safek is Tamei.

(b)

(Gemara) Question: What is the source of the first law?

(c)

Answer (Rav Yehudah): "To be Metaher or Metamei" - the Torah puts Taharah first.

(d)

Objection: If so, even after the Nega was Muchlat, a Safek should be Tahor!

(e)

Correction: Rather, Rav Yehudah's teaching answered a different question.

1.

(Mishnah): If a Baheres (a Nega in the skin) has a white hair:

i.

If the skin turned white before the hair did, this is a sign of (Muchlat) Tum'ah;

ii.

If the hair turned white before the skin, the Nega is Tahor (not Muchlat);

2.

If we do not know which turned white first, it is Tamei;

3.

R. Yehoshua Keihah.

(f)

Question: What does 'Keihah' mean?

(g)

Answer (Rav Yehudah): He ruled that it is Tahor.

(h)

Question: Perhaps R. Yehoshua ruled that it is Tamei!

(i)

Answer (Rav Yehudah): "To be Metaher or Metamei" - the Torah puts Taharah first.

5)

REASONS FOR EMISSIONS

(a)

(Mishnah): If a man had an emission (of Zivah, i.e. uncooked semen) before he was established to be a Zav, we check if any of seven factors may have caused the emission: eating or drinking (too much, or foods that induce emissions), carrying a heavy load, jumping, sickness, a sight, or thoughts;

(b)

If he already is a Zav, we do not check. If a Zav sees (an emission) due to Ones (one of these factors), or if there is a Safek, or he had a seminal emission, it is Tamei, for there are Raglayim l'Davar (solid grounds to say this. If it is the third sighting, it obligates him to bring a Korban after he counts seven clean days and becomes Tahor. If it is a later sighting, it negates any clean days counted.)

(c)

David hit Levi. It seemed that Levi would die. He improved, but later got worse and died. David is liable for murder;

(d)

R. Nechemyah exempts him, for there are Raglayim l'Davar.

(e)

(Gemara) Question: What is the source of laws (a) and (b)?

(f)

Answer (R. Nasan): "Veha'Zav Es Zovo (a male or a female)" - after two flows, a man is equated to a woman, who becomes Tamei even from blood due to Ones (other factors).

(g)

Question (Beraisa - R. Eliezer): We check a man regarding his third emission, but not his fourth.

(h)

Answer: The Tana'im argue about whether or not we expound the word "Es":

1.

R. Eliezer expounds it (to allude to another flow). He learns that after three flows, a man is equated to a woman;

2.

Chachamim do not expound it. They learn like above.

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