[66a - 53 lines; 66b - 43 lines]

1)[line 12]" ...""SHESHES YAMIM TOCHAL MATZOS ..."- "For six days you shall eat Matzos ..." (Devarim 16:8)

2)[line 13]" ...""SHIV'AS YAMIM MATZOS TOCHELU ..."- "For seven days Matzos you shall eat ..." (Shemos 12:15)

3)[line 14] , MATZAH SHE'IY ATAH YACHOL L'OCHLAH SHIV'AH MIN HE'CHADASH, ATAH YACHOL L'OCHLAH SHISHAH MIN HE'CHADASH- [in order to reconcile the apparent contradiction between the verses, Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar states the following:] You cannot eat Matzah that is made from the new grain for seven days; however, you can eat Matzah that is made from the new grain for six days. (As such, the verse in Shemos refers to eating Matzah that is made from Yashan for seven days and the verse in Devarim refers to eating Matzah that is made from Chadash for six days. According to the Baisusim, if the Omer were to be offered on the Sunday after Pesach starts, most years it would not be possible to eat Matzah that is made from Chadash for six days.)

4)[line 16]"[ ] [ . ] [ ...]""[U'SEFARTEM LACHEM...] MI'YOM HAVI'ACHEM [ES OMER HA'TENUFAH... AD MI'MACHORAS HA'SHABBOS HA'SHEVI'IS] TISPERU [CHAMISHIM YOM...]"- "[And you shall count...] from the day that you bring [the Minchas ha'Omer of the waving... until the day after the seventh week] you shall count [fifty days...]" (Vayikra 23:15-16) -

5)[line 18]"[ ;] , [ .]""[SHIV'AH SHAVU'OS TISPOR LACH;] ME'HACHEL CHERMESH BA'KAMAH, TACHEL LISPOR [SHIV'AH SHAVU'OS.]"- "[Seven weeks shall you count;] from such time as you begin to put the sickle to the grain, begin to number [the seven weeks." (Devarim 16:9)

6)[line 27] KULHU IS LEHU PIRCHA- all of them are refutable

7)[line 27] , , BAR MI'TARTEI TANA'EI BASRA'EI, BEIN B'MASNISA KAMAISA BEIN B'MASNISA BASRAISA, D'LEIS LEHU PIRCHA- except for the last two Tana'im of the first Beraisa (Rebbi Yishmael and Rebbi Yehudah / Yehoshua ben Beseira) and [the last two Tana'im] of the second Beraisa (Rebbi Yosi's second proof and Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar), whose opinions are irrefutable

8)[line 31] MITZVAH L'MIMNEI YOMEI U'MITZVAH L'MIMNEI SHAVU'EI- it is a Mitzvah from the Torah to count days (from the offering of the Minchas ha'Omer until the holiday of Shavu'os) and another Mitzvah to count weeks

9)[line 44] V'HAYU MEHAVHEVIN OSO BA'UR- and they would singe it in the fire

10)[line 45] MITZVAS KALI- the Mitzvah of roasting it (to fulfill the verse "Aviv, Kaluy ba'Esh, Geres Karmel" (Vayikra 2:14)

11a)[line 45]KANIM- reeds

b)[line 46]KOLCHOS- stalks

12)[line 46] CHOVTIN OSO- they would beat it (and not with a flail, which is the normal way in which grain is threshed by hand (O.F. flaiel - a flail))

13)[line 46] SHE'LO YISMA'ECH- so that it is not crushed

14)[line 47]ABUV- a large copper utensil

15)[line 47]MENUKAV- perforated

16)[line 49] REICHAYIM SHEL GERUSOS- a bean mill (that ordinarily cracks bean-pods to extract the beans); a mill that does not grind produce to a fine powder, but rather to small pieces, so that ground bran does not get mixed in with the fine barley flour. The Reichayim Shel Gerusos is able to crack the bran-covered barley kernels to make it possible to remove the bran before the final grinding

17)[line 49] HOTZI'U MIMENU ISARON- they extracted from it one Isaron (approximately 2.16, 2.49 or 4.32 liters, depending upon the differing Halachic opinions, which is one tenth of the produce with which they started)

18)[line 50]() [] (SHE'HU) [SHE'HAYAH] MENUPEH BI'SHELOSH ESREI NAPAH- that was sifted through thirteen sifters (using, in succession, sifters that are extra-fine, fine, extra-fine, etc.)

19)[line 50] V'CHAYAV B'CHALAH - and it is required to separate Chalah from dough made from the left-over flour that was made from the grain that was reaped for the Minchas ha'Omer (CHALAH)

(a)With regard to the Mitzvah of Chalah, the verses state, "... b'Vo'achem El ha'Aretz... Reishis Arisoseichem Chalah Tarimu Serumah..." - "[Speak to the people of Yisrael, and say to them,] 'When you come into the land [where I bring you, when you eat of the bread of the land, you shall separate a Terumah (tribute) to HaSh-m.] You shall separate the first of your dough for a Terumah; [as you do with the Terumah separated from the grain of the threshing floor, so, too, shall you present this [to the Kohanim.]" (Bamidbar 15:18-20).

(b)Whenever a person kneads a large dough made from one of the five species of grain (wheat, barley, oats, rye or spelt), he must separate a small portion to be given to the Kohen before eating from the dough. This portion is called Chalah. (The requirement to separate Chalah with a Berachah only applies to a dough made from the volume of 43.2 Beitzim of flour (about 10 1/2 cups or 2.48 liters). Approximately half of that amount requires Chalah to be separated without a Berachah.) A baker must separate 1/48 of his dough as Chalah, while a normal homeowner must separate 1/24. If a person did not separate Chalah from the dough before it was baked, it must be separated after it is baked before the baked products can be eaten. Before Chalah is separated, the dough is called "Tavul l'Chalah," and anyone who eats it b'Mezid (intentionally) is liable to the punishments of Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Makos 13a).

(c)Chalah has the Halachos of Terumah, and it must be eaten by Kohanim, their wives and children, while they are Tehorim. A non-Kohen who eats Chalah b'Mezid is liable to Malkus and Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (RAMBAM Hilchos Bikurim 5:14 and Hilchos Terumah 6:6).

(d)Since the verse states, "Reishis Arisoseichem Chalah Tarimu Serumah," this teaches that Chalah must be separated only from dough, but not from flour. If it was separated from flour, it does not have the status of Chalah.

20)[line 51] U'FATUR MIN HA'MA'ASER - and the left-over flour that was made from the grain that was reaped for the Minchas ha'Omer is exempt from separating from it Terumos and Ma'asros (MA'ASROS)

(a)After a crop that is grown in Eretz Yisrael is harvested and brought to the owner's house or yard, he must separate Terumah Gedolah from the crop and give it to a Kohen. Although the Torah does not specify the amount to be given, the Rabanan set the requirement at one fiftieth of the total crop. After Terumah is removed from the produce, one tenth of the produce that remains must be designated "Ma'aser Rishon," and given to a Levi. The Levi, in turn, must separate one tenth of his Ma'aser Rishon as Terumas Ma'aser, to be given to a Kohen, as it states in Bamidbar 18:26.

(b)The produce may not be eaten until both Terumos have been separated from it. Until the Terumos have been separated, the produce is called Tevel. The punishment for eating Tevel is Misah b'Yedei Shamayim (Sanhedrin 83a).

(c)A second tithe is given every year after Ma'aser Rishon has been separated. The tithe that is separated in the third and sixth years of the 7-year Shemitah cycle is called Ma'aser Ani and is given to the poor.

(d)The tithe that is separated during the first, second, fourth and fifth years is called Ma'aser Sheni. The Torah requires that Ma'aser Sheni be brought and eaten by its owner in Yerushalayim. Anyone who eats Ma'aser Sheni produce outside of the walls of Yerushalayim (without Pidyon, redemption - see (e) below) receives Malkus (RAMBAM Hilchos Ma'aser Sheni 2:5).

(e)Alternatively, Ma'aser Sheni produce may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem it is brought to Yerushalayim. If the owner himself redeems the produce, he must add an additional fifth (of the ensuing total, or a quarter of the original value). The food that is bought with this money in Yerushalayim becomes Kodesh like Ma'aser Sheni and must be eaten b'Taharah. Ma'aser Sheni that was redeemed by anyone besides the owner is exempt from the additional fifth.

21)[line 52]"... ...""... AVIV KALUY BA'ESH GERES KARMEL ..."- "[made from] the early-ripening grain, roasted in fire, cracked, from fresh new grain" (Vayikra 2:14)

22)[line 52] ZEH AVIV- this is the early-ripening grain, i.e. barley

66b----------------------------------------66b

23)[line 1] EIN UR LESHON KALI ELA DAVAR ACHER- if they would actually singe the grain in fire, it would not be called "Kali"

24)[line 2] () EIN LESHON KALI ELA DAVAR (ACHER) KALIL- the word "Kali" connotes a utensil that is made of refined metal, in this case, copper (the Abuv was made of refined copper)

25)[line 3]KALIL- purified

26)[line 3]KELAYOS- parched grain

27)[line 4]KEVARAH- a sieve

28)[line 7] RACH V'MAL- soft and able to be peeled when rubbed between one's fingers

29)[line 7] V'CHEN HU OMER- and this is a similar instance where Chazal use the tool of "Notrikon" (which is either (a) cocophemistic etymology; or (b) etymology using the letters of the word as an acronym) (RASHI)

30)[line 7]" , , , ; , ' '.""V'ISH BA... V'CHARMEL B'TZIKLONO"- "And there came a man from Ba'al-Shalisha, and brought the man of HaSh-m bread of the first fruits, twenty loaves of barley [bread], and fresh ears of grain in its husk; and he said, 'Give to the people, that they may eat.'" (Melachim II 4:42) - The Gemara interprets the word "b'Tziklono" as an acronym (see next entry).

31)[line 10] BA V'YATZAK LANU V'ACHALNU V'NAVEH HAYAH- (these words make up the acronym, "b'Tziklono," as follows: Ba v'yaTZaK Lanu V'achalnu v'NaVeh [Hayah]) he came and he served us, we ate and it (the bread) [was] pleasant

32)[line 11]"... .""... NIS'ALSAH BA'OHAVIM."- "... let us delight ourselves with love." (Mishlei 7:18) - The Gemara interprets the word "Nis'alsah" as an acronym (see next entry).

33)[line 12] NISA V'NITEN V'NA'ALEH V'NISMACH V'NISCHATEI BA'OHAVIM- (these words make up the acronym, "Nis'alsah," as follows: Nisa v'niTen v'na'ALeh v'niSmach v'nisCHatei [ba'Ohavim]) let us plan the matter [between us], go up [to the bed], delight ourselves and frolic [with love]

34)[line 13]" ...""KENAF RENANIM NE'ELASAH ..."- "The wings of the Bar Yuchni (the name of a very large bird) that rejoices ..." (Iyov 39:13) - The Gemara interprets the word "Ne'elasah" as an acronym (see next entry).

35)[line 13] NOSEI OLEH V'NISCHATEI- (these words make up the acronym, "Ne'elasah," as follows: Nosei OLeh v'nisCHatei) (a) she carries [her egg], flies up high and sets it down [in her nest] (b) she carries [her egg before it is laid], flies up high and lays it [in her nest]

36)[line 14]"[ ', ' ? , ,] '.""KI YARAT HA'DERECH L'NEGDI"- "[And the angel of HaSh-m said to him (Bil'am), 'Why did you strike your donkey these three times? Behold, I went out to impede you,] because your way is perverse before me.'" (Bamidbar 22:32) - The Gemara interprets the word "Yarat" as an acronym (see next entry).

37)[line 15] YAR'ASAH RA'ASAH NATESAH- (these words make up the acronym, "Yarat," as follows: Yar'asah Ra'asah naTesah) she was afraid [because of what] she saw, she strayed [off the road]

38)[line 16] KAR MALEI- a full "pillow," i.e. ears of grain with full, fat kernels

39)[line 18] MIRU'ACH HEKDESH- when the emissary of the Beis ha'Mikdash performs Miru'ach (making the grain in the field into an evened pile)

40)[line 22] PODEH MI'YAD GIZBAR (PIDYON HEKDESH)

(a)If a person consecrates (is "Makdish") an object to the Beis ha'Mikdash and that object is of no benefit to the Mikdash in its present state, the object may be sold by the appointees of Hekdesh (Gizbarim), who determine its selling price based on the estimate of a group of experts. When a person buys the object from Hekdesh, the object loses its Kedushah and its value becomes Kodesh in its stead. This is called "Pidyon Hekdesh," redeeming from Hekdesh.

(b)If the object that is consecrated to Hekdesh is an object that can acquire intrinsic Kedushah, such as the utensils used in the Beis ha'Mikdash or a Korban that is used in the Beis ha'Mikdash "as is" (such as the Shtei ha'Lechem in the case of our Gemara), it becomes Kadosh with Kedushas ha'Guf. An animal that has Kedushas ha'Guf cannot be redeemed without a Mum (blemish), and a non-animal offering, such as the Shtei ha'Lechem, cannot be redeemed at all.

41)[line 27] LEFI SHE'LO NITNU MA'OS ELA L'TZORECH LAHEN- since the Hekdesh money that was used to purchase the grain from which the Omer was extracted, was used with the intention that it should only purchase the required amount of flour for the Omer; the rest is Chulin (non-consecrated)

42)[line 28] TALMUD ARUCH HU- it is an explicit teaching of Chazal

43)[line 34] MIRU'ACH HA'OVED KOCHAVIM- when a Nochri perform Miru'ach (making the grain in the field into an evened pile)

44)[line 35] U'MI'SHEL OVDEI KOCHAVIM (MA'ASER: PEIROS OVDEI KOCHAVIM)

(a)See above, entry #20.

(b)There is an argument among the Tana'im and Amora'im as to whether or not the purchase of land in Eretz Yisrael by a Nochri is Mafki'a mi'Yad Ma'aser, it removes the obligation to separate Terumos and Ma'asros.

45)[line 37]KUSIYIM (KUSIM)

(a)The King of Ashur brought the people of Kusa to Eretz Yisrael and made them settle in the Shomron. They converted to Judaism after they found themselves under attack from lions. The Chachamim disagree as to whether their conversion was honest and valid (Geirei Emes) or not (Geirei Arayos).

(b)After the times of the Mishnah, the Kusim were found worshipping an image of a dove and the Chachamim gave them the status of Nochrim. (According to most Rishonim, this means that they decided to treat them like Nochrim l'Chumra, even if they were Geirei Emes. According to the RAMBAM (Peirush ha'Mishnayos), however, this means that they decided that their conversion was not sincere and deemed them Nochrim (Geirei Arayos) for all Halachic matters.)

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