[53a - 45 lines; 53b - 57 lines]

1)[line 4]כי קא מיבעיא לי לעכבKI KA MIBA'I LI L'AKEV- what I was actually asking was how do we know that offering a Minchah that was leavened invalidates the Minchah (lit. to prevent [the Minchah from being offered])

2)[line 7]שיאורSI'UR - the beginning of the leavening process / SIDUK - (lit. cracks [in the dough]) the completion of the leavening process)

(a)As dough becomes Chametz it goes through a number of stages. 1. First it becomes pale like the appearance of a man whose hair stands on end out of fright. 2. It then starts to form thin cracks on its surface, which look like locusts' antennae (Karnei Chagavim). 3. Next the cracks begin to multiply and run into each other.

(b)The Tana'im argue as to which stage is called "Si'ur," the stage that necessitates that the dough be burned, and that makes the dough Asur b'Hana'ah. Our Gemara cites their argument (see (c), below). They argue similarly as to which stage is considered "Siduk," where the dough is not only Asur b'Hana'ah but the person who eats it is punished with Kares. (Si'ur is considered inedible ("Chametz Nuksheh"), since the dough has not completed its fermentation, and therefore one who eats it is not punished with Kares.)

(c)Rebbi Meir calls stage 1. (above, (a))"Si'ur" and maintains that it is already leavened but since at this point it is not fit to be eaten, one receives Malkus for eating it, instead of Kares. He calls stage 2. "Siduk," which is punishable by Kares. Rebbi Yehudah maintains that stage 1. is still Matzah mid'Oraisa, and is prohibited only mid'Rabanan. He calls stage 2. "Si'ur" and maintains that it must be destroyed before Pesach but a person who eats it is exempt from Kares or Malkus. Stage 3., however, is termed "Siduk," which is punishable by Kares.

3)[line 7]שיאור דמאןSI'UR D'MAN- according to which Tana do we define the term "Si'ur"?

4)[line 7]דר''מD'REBBI MEIR- according to Rebbi Meir (when it becomes pale)

5)[line 7]לר' יהודה מצה מעליא היאL'REBBI YEHUDAH MATZA MA'ALYA HI- according to Rebbi Yehudah, this stage is still considered pure Matzah

6)[line 8]דרבי יהודהD'REBBI YEHUDAH- according to Rebbi Yehudah (when it develops thin cracks on its surface, which look like locusts' antennae)

7)[line 9]מדלקי עליה, חמץ הואMID'LAKI ALEI, CHAEMTZ HU- since a person who eats it receives Malkus, it must be Chametz

8)[line 12]חלוטCHALUT- boiled, scalded

9)[line 12](רביכה) [רבוכה](REVICHAH) [REVUCHAH]- unleavened loaves made of boiled flour

10)[line 15]אי בעי (רביכה) [רבוכה], לייתיIY BA'I (REVICHAH) [REVUCHAH], LAISI- if he wants to make the Minchah from boiled flour, he may

11)[line 17]למיקם גברא בלאו בעלמאL'MEIKAM GAVRA B'LAV B'ALMA- to prohibit a person from eating it, but eating it would only incur Malkus, since it is only a negative prohibition (and is not liable to Kares)

12)[line 18]ואיפסולי לא מיפסלאV'IFUSULEI LO MIFSELA- and the Minchah will not be invalidated (and, as such, we still need a source that shows that a Minchah that is made from Chametz is invalidated)

13)[line 21]שנילושות בפושריןSHE'NILOSHON B'FOSHRIN- that is kneaded in warm water (which is best for baking, but causes dough to become Chametz quickly)

14)[line 22]ומשמרן שלא יחמיצוU'MESHAMRAN SHE'LO YACHMITZU- and we must guard them so that they do not become Chametz

15)[line 24]"... מצה תהיה""... MATZAH SIHEYEH."- "... it shall be Matzah" (Vayikra 2:5)

16)[line 24]החייהHACHAYEI- (lit. keep it alive) guard it so that it does not become Chametz

17)[line 24]והא אפיקתיה לעכבV'HA AFIKTEI L'AKEV- but we have already used this word, "Siheyeh," l'Akev (to show that a Minchah that is made from Chametz is invalidated)

18)[line 28]עשיריASIRI- tenth [genration]

19)[line 29]עזראEZRA- Ezra ha'Sofer, the leader of the generation that returned from Bavel to Eretz Yisrael after the first exile (around the year 3390). He was a prophet (identified as the prophet Mal'achi - Megilah 15a) and he became the first Kohen Gadol of the second Beis ha'Mikdash.

20)[line 29]קאי אבבאKA'I A'BAVA- is waiting at the gate

21)[line 29]מאי כולי האי?MAI KULEI HAI?- What is the reason for all of this (listing his ancestors)?

22)[line 30]בר אורייןBAR ORIYAN- a Torah scholar

23)[line 30]יאיYA'I- it is very good, pleasant

24)[line 30]בר אבהןBAR AVAHAN- one with illustrious ancestry

25)[line 31]אישא תיכליהEISHA TEICHLEI- (a) let him be consumed by fire; (b) according to the Girsa IMEI TEICHLEI - his mother should have miscarried him (MAHARSHA) (since he has not taken the trouble to learn Torah like his ancestors)

26)[line 33]ליעול וליתיLEI'OL V'LEISEI- let him come up and come in

27)[line 33]הוה עכירא דעתיהHAVAH ACHIRA DA'ATEI- he was in a bad mood

28)[line 34]"אמרת לה' אדני אתה טובתי בל עליך""AMART LA'SH-M, 'ADON-I ATAH', TOVASI BAL ALECHA."- "You (Keneses Yisrael, the spiritual counterpart of the people of Yisrael) said about HaSh-m, 'You are [the only] G-d', but I do not credit you for that." (Tehilim 16:2)

29)[line 36]החזק לי טובהHACHAZEK LI TOVAH- give me the credit

30)[line 36]שהודעתיך בעולםSHE'HODATICHA BA'OLAM- that I proclaimed [that] You are [the only G-d] in the universe

31)[line 38]"לקדושים אשר בארץ המה ואדירי כל חפצי בם""LI'KEDOSHIM ASHER BA'ARETZ HEMAH, V'ADIREI KOL CHEFTZI VAM."- "For the sake of the holy ones who are [buried] in the ground, and the mighty ones in whom I desire." (Tehilim 16:3)

32)[line 39]כיון דשמעיה דקאמר אדירKEIVAN D'SHAM'EI D'KA'AMAR ADIR- as soon as Rebbi Ezra heard Rebbi Pereida mention the word ["Adirei", which is related to the word,] "Adir"

33a)[line 40]יבא אדירYAVO ADIR- The Mighty One shall come (HaSh-m, who is called mighty - Tehilim 93:4)

b)[line 40]ויפרע לאדיריםV'YIFRA LA'ADIRIM- and avenge the mighty ones (Yisrael, who are called mighty - Tehilim 16:3)

c)[line 40]מאדיריםME'ADIRIM- from the mighty ones (the Egyptians, who are called mighty - Shemos 15:10 - see SEFORNO)

d)[line 40]באדיריםBA'ADIRIM- with mighty [waters] (the waters are called mighty - Tehilim 93:4)

34a)[line 44]יבא ידיד בן ידידYAVO YEDID BEN YEDID- The beloved one (Shlomo ha'Melech, who is called "Yedidyah" - Shmuel II 12:25, see also verse 24), son of the beloved one (Avraham Avinu, who is called HaSh-m's beloved - Yirmeyahu 11:15)

b)[line 44]ויבנה ידידV'YIVNEH YEDID- and he shall build [the Beis ha'Mikdash] (which is called "Yedid" - Tehilim 84:2)

c)[line 44]לידידLI'YEDID- for the Beloved One (HaSh-m, who is called "my Beloved One" - Yeshayah 5:1)

d)[line 44]בחלקו של ידידB'CHELKO SHEL YEDID- in the portion of the beloved one (the tribe of Binyamin, who is called "Yedid HaSh-m" - Devarim 33:12)

e)[line 44]ויתכפרו בו ידידיםV'YISKAPRU BO YEDIDIM- and the beloved ones (Bnei Yisrael, who are called Yedidim - Yirmeyahu 12:7) should receive atonement through it

35)[last line]"וישלח ביד נתן הנביא ויקרא את שמו ידידיה בעבור ה'""VA'YISHLACH B'YAD NASAN HA'NAVI, VA'YIKRA ES SHEMO YEDIDYAH, BA'AVUR HASH-M"- "And he sent word through Nasan the prophet and he called him Yedidyah, because of HaSh-m." (Shmuel II 12:25)

53b----------------------------------------53b

36)[line 1]"מה לידידי בביתי ...""MEH LI'YDIDI B'VEISI..."- "What is my beloved one doing in my house ...?" (Yirmeyahu 11:15) - The Gemara states that this verse refers to Avraham Avinu.

37)[line 3]"מה ידידות משכנותיך ...""MAH YEDIDOS MISHKENOSECHA ..."- "How beloved are your tents ..." (Tehilim 84:2) - The Gemara states that this verse refers to the Beis ha'Mikdash.

38)[line 4]"אשירה נא לידידי""ASHIRAH NA LI'YDIDI..."- "I will sing about my Beloved One..." (Yeshayah 5:1) - The Gemara states that this verse refers to HaSh-m.

39)[line 7]"נתתי את ידידות נפשי בכף איביה ...""... NASATI ES YEDIDUS NAFSHI B'CHAF OYVEHA."- "... I have delivered the beloved of My soul into the hand of her enemy." (Yirmeyahu 12:7) - The Gemara states that this verse refers to Benei Yisrael.

40)[line 21]על עיסקי בניAL ISKEI BENI- with regard to the matter of my son (i.e. sons, many of whom were killed and many of them were sent to exile)

41)[line 23]"... עֲשׂוֹתָהּ הַמְזִמָּתָה ...""... ASOSAH HA'MEZIMASAH ..."- "... she (i.e. the nation) intentionally schemed [to sin] ..." (Yirmeyahu 11:15)

42)[line 23]מיעוטןMI'UTAN- the minority of them

43)[line 24]"... הָרַבִּים ...""... HA'RABIM ..."- "... the many ..." (Yirmeyahu 11:15)

44)[line 25]"... וּבְשַׂר קֹדֶשׁ יַעַבְרוּ מֵעָלָיִךְ ...""U'VESAR KODESH YA'AVRU ME'ALAYICH"- "and the holy flesh they (i.e. you) have passed away from you" (Yirmeyahu 11:15) - The "holy flesh" refers to the Mitzvah of Bris Milah. The verse accuses the people of either being "Moshech b'Milasam" (pulling the flesh over the place of the Bris Milah, to hide it) or of stopping to perform Milah entirely.

45)[line 26]המתנתHIMTANTA- if You had waited

46)[line 27]"... כִּי רָעָתֵכִי, אָז תַּעֲלֹזִי.""... KI RA'ASEICHI, AZ TA'ALOZI."- "... for you have done bad, when you rejoice." (Yirmeyahu 11:15) - Even when the times became better, with less suffering, they still did not repent. Just the opposite - they sinned even more.

47)[line 30]"'זַיִת רַעֲנָן יְפֵה פְרִי תֹאַר' קָרָא ה' שְׁמֵךְ ...""'ZAYIS RA'ANAN YEFEI FRI SO'AR' KARA HASH-M SHEMEICH..."- "'A leafy olive tree with beautiful quality fruit' has HaSh-m called you ..." (Yirmeyahu 11:16)

48)[line 31]ACHARISO V'SOFO- (a) it only bears fruit after having been planted for many years (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) its fruits do not ripen little by little, but rather together, all of a sudden, at the end of the growing season (RASHI, 2nd explanation)

49)[line 32]אחריתו בסופוACHARISAN B'SOFAN- they will be redeemed after many years of suffering, all together, all of a sudden

50)[line 32]"... לְקוֹל הֲמוּלָּה גְדֹלָה הִצִּית אֵשׁ עָלֶיהָ, וְרָעוּ דָּלִיּוֹתָיו.""... L'KOL HAMULAH GEDOLAH HITZIS ESH ALEHA, V'RA'U DALIYOSAV"- "... to the accompaniment of the noise of the great multitude He kindled fire on it, and ruined its branches" (Yirmeyahu 11:16).

51)[line 34]לקול מיליהן של מרגליםL'KOL MILEIHEN SHEL MERAGLIM- because of the words of the spies in the desert (Bamidbar 13:27-29, 31-33)

52)[line 35]ניתרועעו דליותיהןNISRO'A'U DALIYOSEIHEN- (lit. its branches were ruined) their pride was smashed

53)[line 37]"[וְהָאֲנָשִׁים אֲשֶׁר עָלוּ עִמּוֹ, 'אָמְרוּ לֹא נוּכַל לַעֲלוֹת אֶל הָעָם,] כִּי חָזָק הוּא מִמֶּנּוּ'.""[VEHA'ANASHIM ASHER ALU IMO AMRU, 'LO NUCHAL LA'ALOS EL HA'AM,] KI CHAZAK HU MIMENU.'"- "[But the men who went up with him said, 'We are not able to fight (lit. go up) against the people,] for they are stronger than we.'" (Bamidbar 13:31) - The word "Mimenu" can also be translated as, "than Him!"

54a)[line 38](אל תיקרי ממנו אלא ממנו)(AL TIKREI MIMENU ELA MINENU)- (RASHI to Sotah 35a omits this phrase, since there is no difference in the pronunciation of the word "Mimenu" whether it refers to the people (first person) or to HaSh-m (third person); see YOSEF DA'AS for various other opinions.)

55)[line 38]כביכולKIV'YACHOL- as if it were possible [to claim that anything is stronger than HaSh-m] (RASHI to Yoma 3b DH kiv'Yachol, 2nd explanation; this is the common usage of the word kiv'Yachol in the Gemara)

56)[line 40]וחמלתיV'CHAMALTI- and I had mercy on them (when the letter "Heh" of "Hamulah" is interchanged with the letter "Ches," it is reminiscent of the word "Chemlah," "mercy")

57)[line 41]ישתעבדוYISHTA'ABDU- they should be subjugated

58)[line 41]כשיעור ארבע מלכיותK'SHI'UR ARBA MALCHIYOS- (a) like the length of time of the four kingdoms [that subjugated Benei Yisrael]; (b) according to the Girsa "K'SHI'UR MALCHUS MITZRAYIM" - like the length of time that the kingdom of Egypt subjugated them (either four hundred years, as the verse states (Bereishis 15:13), or two hundred ten years, as the Rabanan interpret - Nedarim 32a)

59)[line 42]מאי דפסיק להMAI D'FASIK LAH- the amount of time that was allotted for it

60)[line 43]בבת אחתB'VAS ACHAS- at the same time

61)[line 44]אין עליו נושריןEIN ALAV NOSHRIN- its leaves do not fall out

62)[line 45]אין להם בטילה עולמיתEIN LAHEM BETEILAH OLAMIS- they have no end, forever

63)[line 47]כתיתהKESISAH- crushing

64)[line 47]יסוריןYISURIN- suffering

65)[line 49]עבהAVAH- thick (with little water)

66)[line 49]יתירה מדת העשרוןYESEIRAH MIDAS HA'ISARON- the amount of flour will be more than one Isaron

67)[line 49]רכהRAKAH- soft (with much water)

68)[line 50]כי קא כייל, לעשרון קא כיילKI KA CHAYIL, L'ISARON KA CHAYIL- when he measures, he uses an Isaron measure to measure it (i.e. what is the difference?)

69)[line 51]לכמות שהן היתה משערינןLI'CHEMOS SHE'HEN HAYESAH MESHA'ARINAN- they would reckon according to the amount of flour that was originally measured, before the sourdough was added

70)[line 51]ולישקול פורתאV'LISHKOL PURTA- and take out a little flour

71)[line 51]ליחמציה מאבראיLICHAMTZEI ME'AVRAI- and leaven it outside of the measure

72)[last line]וליתיה ונילושיה בהדיהV'LEISEI V'NILOSHEI BAHADEI- and then bring it back and knead it (the fermented piece) with it (the remainder of the flour in the measure)

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