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YOMA 82 (4 Elul) - Dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Chaim Yissachar (ben Yakov) Smulewitz of Cleveland on his Yahrzeit, by his daughter and son in law, Jeri & Eli Turkel of Raanana, Israel.


1. The Mishnah says that we train children before Bar and Bas Mitzvah to fast, either partially or completely, on Yom Kippur.
2. There is a dispute about how to train children towards this goal, and at what ages.
3. If a pregnant woman smells food and says that she absolutely must have it, she is allowed to eat.
4. Every prohibition -- except for the three cardinal sins -- is overruled when one's life is in danger.
5. The Gemara says that it is obvious that one may not kill an innocent person in order to save another person's life.


1. There are three different categories of fasting: Partial fasting, complete fasting according to Rabbinic law, and completing the fast according to Torah law.
2. For example, Rav Huna and Rav Nachman maintain that according to Rabbinic law, when one is close to Bar Mitzvah, he is obligated to complete the fast. Rebbi Yochanan maintains that according to Rabbinic law there is never an obligation for a child under the age of Bar Mitzvah age to complete the fast on Yom Kippur.
3. However, Rebbi said that one should first whisper to the woman that today is Yom Kippur. There was an incident wherein Rebbi instructed that this be done for a woman, and the woman's craving for the food vanished.
4. The cardinal sins are: murder, illicit relations, and idol worship.
5. While the Gemara derives from verses that one may not save his own life by worshipping idols or by having illicit relations, it says that the fact that one may not kill another to save one's life is logical: one may not assume that his blood is any redder than the other person's (that is, he may not assume that his life is more valuable than the other's).

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