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NIDAH 4 (4 Sivan) - Dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld's father, Mr. David Kornfeld, in memory of the members of his family who perished at the hands of the Nazi murderers in the Holocaust, Hashem Yikom Damam: His mother (Mirel bas Yakov Mordechai), brothers (Shraga Feivel, Aryeh Leib and Yisachar Dov sons of Mordechai), grandfather (Reb Yakov Mordechai ben Reb David Shpira) and aunt (Charne bas Yakov Mordechai, the wife of Reb Moshe Aryeh Cohen zt'l). Their Yahrzeit is observed on 4 Sivan.


1. The Mishnah discusses a case in which a person touched another person without knowing whether he was alive, and subsequently saw that the person he touched was dead.
2. If we find a broken needle that was once Tamei (when it was not broken) resting on top of Taharos, we do not say that the Taharos are Tamei.
3. A case of Safek Tum'ah involving an item that has no Da'as (as opposed to a person) is ruled to be Tahor.
4. Rabah tested Abaye by using incorrect reasoning for the law of the Chachamim in the Mishnah.
5. Shmuel explains the reasoning of the Chachamim who argue with Hillel and Shamai in our Mishnah.


1. Rebbi Meir: He is Tahor. Chachamim: In a case of doubt, a person's status is determined by where the dead person is discovered to be dead. If the dead person is in the same place where he was at the time that the person touched him, the person is Tamei (since the only certain status he had in the place is that he is dead). If the dead person was found in a place other than where the person touched him, the person is Tahor.
2. This is because we do not know that the needle was ever Tamei (whole) when it was on top of the Taharos. The Gemara proves from the fact that the Mishnah calls them Tahor that they are entirely Tahor and there is not even a doubt that they are Tamei.
3. The law, as derived from Sotah, is that a case of Safek Tum'ah in a private domain is ruled to be Tamei. However, this applies only when a person with Da'as is involved and asks about the object's status.
4. Abaye understood that Rabah's statement that women know when they become Tamei is a reason for the view of Shamai, not for the view of the Chachamim.
5. The Chachamim instituted that women should examine themselves in the morning and at night in order to ascertain that the items they handle -- between now and the next time they examine -- are indeed Tahor. Since this woman did not do so, the Chachamim fined her and decreed that the items she handled are considered Tamei for an extra unit of this time (morning until night, or night until morning).

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