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1. There is a dispute about whether a minor is obligated to do Yibum.
2. The Tana'im and Amora'im relate that very young girls who became Nidos were immersed in a Mikvah.
3. The Gemara discusses various laws relevant to young girls.
4. The Gemara discusses various laws relevant young boys.
5. Various verses exclude males from the Tum'ah of females, and females from the Tum'ah of males.
A BIT MORE
1. Rebbi Meir: He does not do Yibum, since the boy might later be found to be a Seris and the girl might later be found to be an Ailonis, and their union will turn out to have been forbidden. Chachamim: We do not suspect they will be found to have these defects, since most people are not found to be a Seris or Ailonis.
2. The Gemara explains that in Eretz Yisrael this was done to prevent them from defiling Terumah of Eretz Yisrael, which would become Tamei as a result of contact with a Nidah. Outside of Eretz Yisrael this was done because of ointment of Terumah of Chutz la'Aretz, since it is forbidden to put ointment of Terumah on them (an act compared to eating) unless they are Tahor.
3. A girl can be deemed a Nidah at one day old, and a Zavah at ten days old, and an act of relations with her is considered relations only at three years old.
4. A boy can be deemed a Zav at one day old, and his Keri is deemed Tamei only at nine years old.
5. For example, a woman who emits something that looks like a male type of emission (it is whitish, and she has not had relations with a man recently), or a man who emits a blood-like emission, is not deemed Tamei.
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