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1. The Duchifas mentioned in the Torah is the wild peacock which brought the Shamir to Shlomo ha'Melech to be used for the building of the Beis ha'Mikdash.
2. Ameimar maintains that birds called Shaknoy and Bitnoy are permitted only in a place where the Peres and Ozniyah are not normally found.
3. The Racham mentioned in the Torah among the non-Kosher birds is the Sherakrak. If it sits on something and makes a noise that sounds like it is saying "Sherakrak," it is an indicator of impending rain.
4. Rav Chisda maintains that twenty-four types of non-Kosher birds are alluded to in the Torah.
5. Abaye maintains that the Da'ah mentioned in Sefer Vayikra among the list of non-Kosher birds, and the Ra'ah mentioned in Sefer Devarim, are synonymous. The same is true regarding the Ayah and Dayah.
6. According to Rebbi Avahu, the Da'ah, Ra'ah, Ayah, and Dayah are one and the same.
7. Rebbi says that since there are more non-Kosher animals than Kosher ones, the Torah lists the Kosher animals when it teaches what animals one may or may not eat. Since there are more Kosher birds than non-Kosher birds, the Torah lists the non-Kosher birds when it teaches what birds one may or may not eat.
8. A bird is considered Kosher if there is a tradition that it is eaten.
9. A hunter is believed with a claim that his teacher taught him that a certain bird is Kosher, but only if his teacher can identify the twenty-four non-Kosher birds and know their names.
10. One is permitted to buy bird eggs from a Nochri without concern that it came from a Neveilah or a Tereifah bird, as long as the Nochri asserts that it is an egg from a specific Kosher bird.


1. The Shamir is an insect which splits large rocks into two. The wild peacock uses it to split open rocks so that it can plant seeds inside the cracks. It was the wild peacock that brought the Shamir to Shlomo ha'Melech.
2. The Shaknoy and Bitnoy have one Siman Taharah, like the Peres and Ozniyah, which are non-Kosher birds. Therefore, in a place that is frequented by the Peres and Ozniyah, the Shaknoy and Bitnoy may not be eaten because of the concern that it is actually the Peres and Ozniyah.
3. If it sits on the ground and makes a noise that sounds like it is saying "Sherakrak," it is an indicator of the impending arrival of Mashi'ach.
4. Twenty-one birds are mentioned in Sefer Devarim. The Torah states "l'Minah," "l'Mino," and "l'Minehu," which includes four birds which are not mentioned explicitly in the Torah. Two of the birds mentioned in Sefer Devarim are the same bird, and thus altogether there are twenty-four birds.
5. The Torah mentions these birds twice because some people call them by one name and some call them by the other name. In order that one not think that the bird is not included among the non-Kosher birds, the Torah mentions them by both names.
6. According to Rebbi Avahu, fewer than twenty-four types of non-Kosher birds are mentioned in the Torah.
7. This affirms the statement of Rav Huna that one should always teach his students in a concise manner.
8. If one witnessed a trustworthy Jew eating the bird, he may consider it Kosher.
9. The teacher referred to is a teacher of hunting, not a teacher of Torah. It is unreasonable to expect a teacher of Torah to be capable of identifying the species of non-Kosher birds.
10. If the Nochri names the Kosher bird, he is believed because he could easily be caught in his lie, since it is possible for us to match the egg with the egg of the bird that he mentioned. However, if the Nochri says merely that it is an egg of a Kosher bird without naming the bird, he cannot be relied upon because he is not afraid that he will be caught.

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