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|SANHEDRIN 74 - In memory of Sheina Basha (daughter of Yakov and Dora) Zuckerman, by her children and sons in law.|
1. Rebbi Yonasan Ben Sha'ul says if it is possible to stop a Rodef by maiming a limb it is forbidden to kill him.
2. If a Rodef breaks utensils during his pursuit he is Patur from paying.
3. If a person who is being pursued breaks the utensils of the Rodef he is Patur.
4. If a person breaks utensils in the process of pursuing a Rodef he is Patur.
5. Rebbi Shimon says if someone is on his way to worship Avodah Zarah it is permitted to kill him in order to stop him.
6. Rebbi Elazar Bar Shimon says that even if someone is running to be Mechalel Shabbos it is permitted to kill him in order to stop him.
7. One should transgress an Aveirah rather than give up his life with the exception of Avodah Zarah, Giluy Arayos and Shefichus Damim.
8. If it is a time of Shemad, or it is in the presence of ten Jews, a person must give up his life even for a minor Mitzvah.
9. A person who is forced by a Nochri to commit an Aveirah in the presence of ten Jews is not obligated to give up his life if the coercion is for the benefit of the Nochri.
10. It is a Safek whether a Ben Noach is commanded in the Mitzvah of Kidush Hashem.
A BIT MORE
1. If a person kills a Rodef when it was possible to stop him without killing him, then the killer is Chayav Misah.
2. Since the Rodef is Chayav Misah he is Patur from any payment, even if the utensil belongs to someone other than the person he is pursuing.
3. Since he is allowed to kill the Rodef he may break his utensils as well. If he breaks anyone else's utensil in the process of trying to escape the Rodef he is Chayav. A person who uses his friend's property to save himself is Chayav to pay.
4. He is Patur whether he breaks the utensils of the Nirdaf, Rodef, or of anyone else. He is Patur because if he would be Chayav he would not be willing to pursue the Rodef.
5. Rebbi Shimon learns that it is a Kal va'Chomer. If it is permitted to kill someone for a Pegam Hedyot it is certainly permitted to kill someone for a Pegam Gavohah. The Rabanan, however, argue and say that we may not learn a punishment from a Kal va'Chomer.
6. Rebbi Elazar Bar Shimon agrees with his father that we may deduce a punishment from a Kal va'Chomer. He says it is permitted to kill someone who is on his way to worship Avodah Zarah and he learns Shabbos using a Gezeirah Shaveh from Avodah Zarah.
7. Rebbi Yishmael disagrees in reference to Avodah Zarah. He says that a person should transgress the Aveirah of Avodah Zarah rather than give up his life unless it is in front of ten Jews.
8. Even if a person is being forced to wear a certain type of shoelace when it is a Minhag in Klal Yisrael to wear a different type of shoelace, he must be prepared to give up his life rather than transgress.
9. The reason that a person is obligated to give up his life if it is in the presence of ten Jews rather than commit an Aveirah is because of the Mitzvah of Kidush Hashem. However, when a Nochri is forcing him to commit an Aveirah for his own benefit it is not a Chilul Hashem since it is not his intent to force him to transgress the Torah.
10. If a Ben Noach is forced to transgress one of the seven Mitzvos Bnei Noach in front of ten Jews it is a Safek whether or not he must give up his life rather than transgress the Mitzvah.
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