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1. During the trial of a Megadef (a blasphemer), the witnesses do not repeat the explicit name of Hashem when they relate the blasphemy of the Megadef.
2. A Megadef is Chayav only if he blesses a name of Hashem with a name of Hashem.
3. There is a dispute regarding whether a Megadef is Chayav Misah if he does not use the explicit name of Hashem.
4. The Din of a non-Jewish Megadef is not the same as the Din of a Jewish Megadef.
5. The Bnei Noach were commanded to observe seven Mitzvos.
6. According to some opinions, there are more than seven Mitzvos which the Bnei Noach were commanded.
7. There is a dispute regarding whether a non-Jew is Chayav Misah if he makes an Avodah Zarah but does not bow down to it.
8. A non-Jew is permitted to perform any method of worshipping Avodah Zarah for which a Yisrael is not Chayav Misah.
9. In Marah, the Jews received three new Mitzvos in addition to the Mitzvos of Bnei Noach.
10. Both Jews and non-Jews are obligated to establish Batei Dinim.
A BIT MORE
1. Only when the Beis Din is about to reach the Gemar Din do the witnesses repeat the exact words of the Megadef, including the name of Hashem. At that time, everyone but the witnesses is expelled from the room, and the oldest witness is instructed to repeat exactly what he heard. The witness repeats the Megadef's words, including the name of Hashem, whereupon the judges rip their clothing, which may then never be mended. The second and third witnesses do not state the name of Hashem; they merely say that they also heard the same thing.
2. A Megadef is Chayav for statements such as "Ploni should strike Ploni" or "The name Ploni should curse the name Ploni."
3. Rebbi Meir maintains that a Megadef is Chayav Misah even if he blesses a non-explicit name of Hashem. The Chachamim maintain that such a Megadef incurs only a Chiyuv Kares but is not sentenced to Misas Beis Din.
4. Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha maintains that a non-Jewish Megadef who blesses a Kinuy (non-explicit name of Hashem) is Chayav only according to Rebbi Meir, who maintains that a Jew is also Chayav Misah if he blesses a Kinuy. According to Rebbi Meir, the difference between a Jew and a non-Jew is that a non-Jewish Megadef is punished with Sayif whereas a Jewish Megadef is punished with Sekilah. According to Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha, the Rabanan rule that there is another distinction between a Jew and a non-Jew: a non-Jewish Megadef is Chayav even if he does not bless a Shem with a Shem. Rav Meisha disagrees with Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha and maintains that even the Rabanan agree that a non-Jewish Megadef who blesses a Kinuy is Chayav Misah.
5. The seven Mitzvos of the Bnei Noach are Dinim, Birchas Hashem, Avodah Zarah, Giluy Arayos, Shefichas Damim, Gezel and Ever Min ha'Chai.
6. There are several opinions that add various prohibitions to the Mitzvos of Bnei Noach: the prohibition to eat blood from a living animal, the prohibition to neuter an animal, the prohibition of Kishuf, and the prohibition of Kilayim involved in interbreeding animals and grafting trees.
7. A Yisrael who makes an Avodah Zarah is not Chayav Misah unless he also bows to it. According to one opinion, however, a non-Jew who makes an Avodah Zarah is Chayav even if he does not bow to it.
8. If it is not customary to worship an Avodah Zarah by hugging or kissing it, a Yisrael who does so is Patur from Misah and a non-Jew is permitted to do so.
9. In Marah, the Mitzvos of Dinim, Parah Adumah and Shabbos were added to the seven Mitzvos of Bnei Noach, which the Jews were already obligated to keep.
10. Batei Dinim must be established in every locality and every city. However a Jewish Beis Din must consist of twenty-three judges while a non-Jewish Beis Din requires only one judge.
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