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1. After the deaths of Chagai, Zecharya and Malachi, the last of the Nevi'im, there no longer was Ru'ach ha'Kodesh in Klal Yisrael.
2. The Chachamim do not establish a leap year unless the Nasi gives his consent.
3. A leap year may be proclaimed as a result of the condition of the roads, bridges, and ovens, or for the benefit of Olei Regel.
4. A leap year may not be proclaimed merely because the lambs or chicks are still young, but they may be used as a secondary reason to proclaim a leap year.
5. The second Adar of a leap year is a full thirty days according to the Tana Kama, while Rebbi Shimon Ben Gamliel maintains that it is a Chodesh.
6. The Chachamim establish a new year if either the grain or the fruits of the trees will not ripen in time, or because the Tekufah will not arrive in time.
7. Eretz Yisrael consists of three regions: Yehudah, Galil and Eiver ha'Yarden.
8. The Chachamim may establish a leap year only in Yehudah and only during the day.
A BIT MORE
1. On two occasions, while the Chachamim were assembled together, a Bas Kol from Heaven announced that one of them was worthy of having the Shechinah rest upon him, but his generation was not deserving. On the first occasion the Chachamim realized that the Bas Kol was referring to Hillel. On the second occasion they understood that it was referring to Shmuel ha'Katan.
2. The Chachamim once proclaimed a leap year while Raban Gamliel was away, on condition that he would give his consent. Upon his return, Raban Gamliel gave his consent and the year was established as a leap year.
3. A leap year may be declared under certain conditions: (a) if the roads or bridges are still in bad condition from the winter and more time is needed to repair them before the Olei Regel can come to Yerushalayim for Pesach; (b) if the ovens used for the Pesachim are still wet from the rains and need more time to dry out before they can be used; or (c) if some of the Olei Regel who live far from Yerushalayim have already left for Yerushalayim for the Regel but will not arrive on time.
4. If the lambs to be used for the Korban Pesach are still young, or the chicks to be used for the Korbanos of a Yoledes or a Zavah are still young, that is not a sufficient reason to proclaim a leap year. A leap year is proclaimed, however, if otherwise the season of Aviv (spring) will not arrive until after Pesach, i.e. the grain will not ripen before Pesach or the fruits of the trees will not be ripe in time for Shavuos. The fact that the lambs and chicks are still young can serve as a secondary reason to proclaim a leap year, so that a leap year may be established even if only one of the primary factors (the lack of ripeness of the grain or the fruit) applies.
5. The Gemara quotes a Beraisa in which Rebbi Shimon Ben Gamliel announced that thirty days had been added to the year, and the Gemara challenges this from a different Beraisa in which Rebbi Shimon Ben Gamliel states that the second Adar is a Chodesh, which is only twenty-nine days. Rav Papa explains that according to Rebbi Shimon Ben Gamliel the second Adar of a leap year is sometimes twenty-nine days and sometimes thirty days.
6. Beis Din may proclaim a leap year for various reasons, including: the grain will not ripen before Pesach, the fruits of the trees will not ripen before Shavuos, or the Tekufas Tishrei will not arrive in time for Sukos. If two out of these three reasons apply, or even if only one of these reasons apply but, in addition, the lambs or chicks are still young, the Chachamim proclaim a leap year.
7. In order for the Chachamim to establish a leap year because the produce is not sufficiently ripe, the grain or fruit must be unripe in at least two out of the three regions of Eretz Yisrael.
8. When a leap year is established, it must be instituted in Yehudah. If the Chachamim proclaim a leap year in Galil, the Tana Kama rules that their proclamation takes effect, but Chananya Ish Ono maintains that the year is not extended. Both the establishment of a leap year and Kidush ha'Chodesh may be done only during the day. If either of them is done at night it does not take effect.
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